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no. iv.
Gladiator of the Borghese Palace.

This statue has been improper-
ly denominated the “Gladiator of
the Borghese Palace.” From the
characters of its inscription it ap-
pears to be of greater antiquity
than any other characterized by the
name of the artist. History gives
us no particulars relative to Agasi-
us of Ephesus, author of this chef
d'oeuvre; but the work which he
has left, bears the strongest testi-
mony of his merit.

In the statue of the Apollo of Bel-
vedere we are struck with the sub-
limity of ideal beauty. The group
of the Laocoon offers us a repre-
sentation of natural beauties unas-
sisted by imagination: the former
may be compared to an epic poem,
which, from probability, passing

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the bounds of truth, leads to the
marvellous; the latter to faithful
history, which in the exposition of
truth, makes choice of the most re-
fined ideas, and most elegant ex-

The head of this figure shews
that nothing but the truth of nature
has been consulted in its formation;
no traces of the ideal beauty of the
Apollo are to be found, and his
whole air is that of a man in the full
vigour of mature age, whose muscles
are strengthened by habitual activi-
ty, and whose body is hardened by

Antiquarians are divided in their
judgment of this figure; some have
supposed it a discobolus, or throw-
er of the disk; but others with more
probability have pronounced it, a
statue erected to the honour of some
Grecian warrior, who had signaliz-
ed himself in a dangerous position:
this appears perfectly to coincide
with the attitude of the figure,
which is at the same time actively
offensive and defensive; on the left
arm the strap of the buckler which
he is supposed to carry is seen; the
right arm is supposed to hold a jave-
lin: his looks are directed upwards,
as if defending himself from a dan-
ger threatening from above: this
position militates against the idea
of its being the statue of a fighting
gladiator, as his opponent may be
supposed on horseback: besides, it
is believed the honour of a statue
was never granted to a gladiator of
of the public arena; and this pro-
duction is supported anterior to the
institution of gladiators in Greece.

This statue as well as the Apollo,
was discovered in the city of Anti-
um, the birth place of the emperor
Nero, which he embelished at an
enormous expense.

no. v.
Castor and Pollux.

Castor and Pollux, were twin
brothers, and sons of Jupiter and
Leda. Mercury, immediately after
their birth, carried them to Pallena,
where they were educated, and
as soon as they had arrived at the
years of maturity, they embarked

with Jason on the Argonautic expe-
dition. In this adventure, they
both behaved with signal courage;
the latter conquered and slew Amy-
cus, in the combat of the cestus,
and was ever after considered the
god and patron of boxing and wrest-
ling.... the former distinguished him-
self in the management of horses.
After their return from Colchis
they cleared the Hellespont and the
neighbouring pass from pirates,
from which circumstance they have
always been deemed the protectors
of navigators.

They made war against the A-
thenians, to recover their sister
Helen whom Theseus had carried
away, and from their clemency to
the conquered, they acquired the
surname of Anaces or Benefac-

They were invited to the nuptial
feasts of Lycas and Idus, where be-
coming enamoured with the brides,
(the daughters of Leucippus).... a
battle ensued in which Lycas fell by
the hand of Castor, who was killed
by Idas. Pollux revenged the death
of his brother in the blood of Idus.
Pollux tenderly attached to his
brother, and inconsolable for his
loss, intreated Jupiter either to re-
store Castor to life, or permit him
to resign his own immortality; Ju-
piter listened benignly to his prayer,
and consented that the immortality
of Pollux should be shared with his
brother, and that it should be alter-
nately enjoyed by them. This act,
of fraternal love, Jupiter rewarded
by making the two brothers constel-
lations in heaven, under the name
of Gemini, which never appear
together, but when one rises the
other sets.

no. vi.

This fine statue has been sup-
posed to represent Germanicus,
son of Drusus and Antonia. The
style of the hair indicates indeed a
Roman personage; but it cannot be
this prince, for the medals and
other monuments we have of him
represent him very differently.
A more attentive examination of

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this figure discovers an analogy
with that of Mercury; the ex-
tended position of the right arm,
the chlamys thrown over the left,
which holds the caduceus, and rests
on a tortoise, consecrated to this
god as the inventor of the harp,
favour this idea. But a more rea-
sonable conjecture may perhaps be
admitted, that, under these forms,
and with the attributes of the god
of eloquence, the ingenious artist
has pourtrayed a Roman orator,
celebrated for his success in the

no. vii.

In the person of Pandora were
united all the perfections of her
sex, but these were eclipsed by the
superior excellencies of Herma-
phrodite, the son of Venus and
Hermes, (as his Greek name
imports) who, to the unrivalled
beauty of his mother, united the
genius, wit, and elegance of his
father. Such is the interesting pour-
trait that poetry has given us of
Hermaphrodite, and sculpture has
ventured to materialize and exhibit
this refined idea in the animated
form which here claims our admi-
ration; this noble competition of
the poets and artists of antiquity,
shews us the elevation to which the
arts had then attained. Poetry had
exhausted the richness of her ima-
gination in creating Hermaphrodite blending the characteristics of
masculine grace and beauty, with
the soft and swelling contour of the
female form. This ideal union
warmed the genius of the sculptor,
and the stubborn marble, under his
animating chissel, started almost
into existence.

The masters of antiquity have
left us several statues of Herma-
phrodite, this, whose original forms
the great ornament of the Borghese
palace at Rome, is considered of
the most perfect beauty, although
that of the Florence gallery has
the advantage of having the Antique
Bed, with the Lion's Skin, on which
the figure reposes. The matrass
in this figure is a ridiculous conceit

of the sculptor Bernini, who re-
stored it. It is unnecessary to
remark that this figure can have
no analogy with those misshapen
objects of the human race, who
have passed under the name of
Hermaphrodites, they are particu-
larly remarked for an unnatural
and heterogeneous mixture of hard
and unharmonious parts.

no. viii.

The original of this charming
figure is of Parian marble; the
correctness of its form, and deli-
cacy of its drapery, entitle it to be
called a model of taste. It is clad
in a tunic, over which is thrown a
mantle, or peplum: both are finish-
ed in so masterly a manner, that
through the mantle are perceived
the knots of the cord which ties the
tunic round her waist.

The artist who repaired this
statue, having placed in its hand
some ears of wheat, the name of
Ceres has probably from that cir-
cumstance been given to it; other-
wise, the virginal character of the
head, and simplicity of its head-
dress, would induce a belief that
the muse Clio was intended by it;
and that a book should have been
placed in the hand, instead of the
cars of wheat.

It was taken from the Museum of
the Vatican, having been placed
there by Clement XIV. It pre-
viously ornamented the Villa Mattei
on Mount Esquilin.

no. ix.
Venus of the Bath.

It is not necessary that we should
say much to recommend this beau-
tiful little figure to those who can
appreciate excellence, and it is
rare to see a subject in which it has
more charms.

no. x.
Torso of a Venus.

This Torso (or mutilated figure)
of a Venus, is of most graceful
beauty, and must recommend itself
strongly to the amateurs of taste
and discernment; we have only to
regret, that time has spared us
but a fragment of what in its perfect

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state must have been a chef d'oeuvre
of the art.

no. xi.
Grecian Cupid.

THIS beautiful figure is known
by the name of the Grecian Cupid,
who was sometimes, as in this
instance, represented under the
maturer age of Adolescence, and
possessed a character much more
mild and reasonable than that attri-
buted to the son of Mars and Venus.
The supposition that this statue
was intended for a Cupid, is perhaps
drawn from the evident marks of
its having been originally with
wings, one of the attributes of his
divinity: but however the intention
of the artist may be mistaken as to
the subject, it will remain a beau-
tiful monument of the art in the
age of its excellence.

no. xii.

THIS fine bust represents the
immortal Homer, the father of
Grecian poetry, and the ornament
of human nature; the diadem
which encircles his head is the
emblem of the divinity which he
merited by his exalted genius, and
by which he obtained the honou
of his apotheosis. The formation
of the eyes, (of admirable execu-
tion), indicates the privation of
sight, a misfortune under which
this celebrated poet is generally
supposed to have laboured.

Although the portrait of Homer
has always been considered doubtful
even among the ancients, it is yet
well known that busts similar to
this have passed under his name.

no. xiii.

THERE is no reason to doubt
that this is a faithful portrait of
Demosthenes, the prince of orato-
ry; whose name will live while
eloquence in the cause of liberty,
shall have power to command ve-

no. xiv.
The Family of Niobe.

Amongst the busts which orna-
ment the Museum, this group,
with the head of Niobe, ought to

engage particular attention, from
the acknowledged purity of style
which reigns throughout the heads
which compose it. The Abbé
Winkleman the most classical judge
of the arts, has pronounced the
head of Niobe to be a model of the
highest style of beauty, and Guido,
the painter of the graces, made it his
peculiar study. The age of their ex-
ecution is supposed to be that of the
highest glory of the arts, that is,
in the time of Phidias, but it is not
ascertained whether the statues
which now compose this interesting
group at Florence, are the originals
or not. By the jealousy and hatred
of Latona, the children of Niobe
fell victims to the darts of Apollo
and Diana, and the expression of
the head of Niobe, is strongly indi-
cative of such peculiar distress.

no. xv.

THIS bust of a Bacchus is strik-
ingly beautiful, and offers to the
admirers of the art, a fine study
of the beau ideal, of the beauty of
form divested of any of those affec-
tions of the mind which give ex-
pression to the countenance, and
which, however they may increase
its interest with us, tend to remove
it from the acknowledged criterion
of beauty. The appropriate orna-
ment of the head is in a style pecu-
liarly graceful, and corresponds
perfectly with the effeminate soft-
ness intended to be expressed.

It is necessary to remark that
Bacchus is here represented not as
the hero and conquerer of India,
but as the voluptuary sunk in the
lap of ease and enjoyment; both
of which characters are ascribed
to him in ancient mythology. Under
the first, sculpture has represented
him bearded, muscular and active;
under the last, as approaching to
the luxurious fullness of the female
form, and without beard.

no. xvi.

By the emblem on the helmet of
this figure, we are enabled to iden-
tify the goddess Roma, which in
other respects might be mistaken

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for Minerva........It is of great

The heads of Seneca and Hippo-
stand on each side of the
door on entering; and together
with the head of Euripides are in-
teresting as portraits of great men.
The Grecian bust of a female is
considered as deserving attention.

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