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For the Literary Magazine.

literary, philosophical, com-
mercial, and agricultural
intelligence
.

BY a recent census, it appears
that, on the 1st December, 1807,
there were contained in the city and
county of New York,

         
Males  39,991 
Females  41,763 
Male slaves  658 
Female do.  1,118 
Total  83,530 

The following table exhibits the
population, as taken at different pe-
riods:

               
In  1697  4,302 
1756  15,000 
1771  21,863 
1786  23,614 
1791  33,131 
1801  60,489 
1805  75,770 
1807  83,530 
By which it appears that the
population has more than tripled
from 1786 to 1805, a period of twen-
ty years.

The whole debt of the United
States, on the 1st of January, 1807,
was 67,727,756 dollars.

By appealing to official documents
we find:

That in a period of twenty years

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the population of this country has
increased nearly 3,000,000.

That the dwelling-houses have in
the same period increased from
640,000 to 1,225,000.

That the improved lands have
risen from 1,120,000 to 2,390,400
acres.

That the average price per acre
has risen from two to six dollars.

That the number of horses has
increased from 600,000 to 1,200,000,
and the horned cattle from 1,200,000
to 2,950,000.

That the merchant vessels have
increased from 250,000 to 1,207,000.

That the imports have risen from
11 to 80 millions of dollars.

That the exports of domestic pro-
duce have increased from 9 to 42
millions.

And the exports of foreign goods
from 1 to 36 millions.

That the national revenues have
increased, in a period of twelve
years, from 8 to nearly 17 millions
of dollars, while the expenditures,
making an allowance for the extin-
guishment of the principal of the
debt, have been nearly stationary.

That the specie in circulation
has risen in the period of twenty
years from ten to seventeen millions.

The secretary of war has receiv-
ed from New Orleans two grisly
bears. They are, as their names
indicate, of a grey colour, and in
their native woods grow to an im-
mense size, it is said so as to weigh
7 or 800 wt., and are then extreme-
ly fierce. The animals sent to gen.
Dearborn were caught when very
young, and are now perfectly tame.
Grisly bears are so fierce and for-
midable that the Indians never at-
tack them, except in large compa-
nies; in which case generally one
or more of them become a sacrifice
to their temerity. Governor Lewis,
when in the Missouri country, was
pursued by a grisly bear, and to save
himself dashed into the river, where
he remained up to his neck in wa-
ter; while the bear, unable to pur-
sue him (for one of the peculiarities

of this species is an incapability of
taking the water), remained growl-
ing for some time on the bank; at
last it retired to the woods, and left
our distinguished traveller rejoicing
at his ability to rejoin his compa-
nions. These bears are considered
as great curiosities, and are to be
sent to Peale's museum in Philadel-
phia, for the inspection of the curi-
ous.

We learn that an immensely va-
luable white marble quarry has been
discovered at Sing-Sing (Mount
Pleasant) on the North River, about
85 miles from New York. It is al-
lowed by judges to be equal to that
imported from Philadelphia or from
Stockbridge quarry.

The Prince of Peace has just
caused to be published, in the Ga-
zette of Madrid, a notice, of which
the following is an extract:

The ship La Plata, belonging to
the Philippine company, and com-
manded by D. J. B. Montervede, go-
ing from Manilla to Lima, discover-
ed, on the 18th February, 1806, a
group of islands, the most southern
of which is situated about 3 degrees
27 minutes of north latitude, 162
degrees 5 minutes of longitude to
the eastward of Cadiz. These
islands, 29 in number, occupy a
space of ten leagues from N. E. to
S. E. and are separated by channels,
one or two leagues wide; they are
low, and intersected by forests and
rivulets. Their inhabitants are of
the most pacific disposition. They
are tall and well made, robust and
agile; their complexion is of an olive
colour; their noses flat, and hair
black and curled, but rather long.

The following notice respecting
the comet has been given in the
Moniteur of the 8th of October.
Mr. Pons, belonging to the observa-
tory at Marseilles, was the first as-
tronomer who discovered the co-
met in France, on the 20th of last

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month; and M. Thuis, of the said
establishment, noticed it on the 21st
and 22d. From the observations
which they communicated, to the
astronomers at Paris, M. Burck-
hardt determined the following or-
bit, which he presented to the class
of mathematical and philosophical
sciences of the National Institute, on
the 5th of this month: Passage to
the perihelion, 25th September,
three, A. M.; distance of the peri-
helion 0,6158; perihelion 291° 4′;
nucleus 267° 47′; inclination 48° 4′;
movement direct. These hints,
says M. Burckhardt, will be suffi-
cient to calculate the route of the
comet, but it may be discovered
without any trouble, as it is distin-
guishable by the naked eye as soon
as night has closed. It is now
(September 25th) to the left of Arc-
turus, between the stars of the
boreal crown and those of Libra
to the west. Its motion is one de-
gree per day towards the north,
and rather more than a degree to-
wards the east. This comet was
also seen on the 28th at Vezoul,
and M. Flaugergues perceived it on
the 26th at Viviers. It seemed to
him like a white nebulous spot, ve-
ry brilliant, and similar to a star of
the second magnitude. It was sur-
rounded by a nebulosity of about
six minutes in diameter, and had a
tail about a degree and a half in
length. It is the opinion of the In-
stitute that this comet is different
from any with which we are ac-
quainted.

A letter from Munich, dated Oc-
tober 8, says:

“On the 1st inst. a comet was
observed in the north-west of the
horizon; it is large, and rather
pale. Its tail appearing direct to-
wards the earth, prevents a correct
judgment being formed of its length.
Yesterday, at 7 o'clock in the eve-
ning, that phenomenon again ap-
peared. In the last century three
comets were seen, one in 1709, one
in 1740, and the other in 1768.

On the evening of the 11th Sep-
tember, was felt at Nieuwied, and

its environs, a strong shock of
an earthquake, accompanied with
some very remarkable circumstan-
ces. The noise, which was heard
at the moment of the commotion,
resembled the rattling of carriages
proceeding with great velocity.
The fishermen on the Rhine saw
numbers of fish thrown out of the
water. The wind suddenly ceased,
the sky became suddenly thick
with clouds, and towards midnight
a shock again occurred, which was
followed by a third, about three in
the morning. On the preceding
day there was a sharp frost, which
in many places congealed the wa-
ter. No lives were lost by the
event.

Launch of earl Stanhope's new
invented vessel.
—Yesterday the
launch of this curious constructed
vessel, invented by earl Stanhope,
took place in the pond in Kensing-
ton gardens, opposite the palace,
where it was brought in an unfi-
nished state last week from Mr.
Keating's, carpenter, in Castle-
street, Oxford-street. The work-
men were ever since busy in com-
pleting it, and had not entirely
finished it before three o'clock yes-
terday afternoon. It is thirty
feet long by seven wide: it has a
round bottom, both ends being sharp
something like a weaver's shuttle.
The sides were painted yellow,
with the port holes on the sides;
and windows at each end, painted
to imitate real. On each side, to-
wards each end (as it was made to
sail either way without putting
about), were three gills, which
opened out, or closed, by means of
pulling an iron rod on the deck,
which was cased with copper in
such a manner as to render it wa-
ter-proof: instead of the bottom be-
ing pitched outside, it was covered
with a composition, an invention of
the noble earl's, which, as soon as
spread on quite hot, became so hard
that a chisel could not cut it, and
it had the quality of resisting any
force by its being elastic, so as

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to answer the purpose of copper
covering. His lordship's country
seat is covered with the same
composition instead of lead. The
launch, and the experiments to be
tried, were expected to take place
between eleven and twelve o'clock,
at which hour there were between
three and four hundred persons
present, among whom were several
ladies of distinction, and many na-
val officers; but being informed
that she would not be ready to be
launched before three o'clock, most
of the company dispersed; some re-
turned to town, others strolled
through the delightful and roman-
tic walks in the gardens; and
others went to take some refresh-
ment in the town of Kensington.
At the hour of three o'clock, the
crowd began to re-assemble in
great numbers. About a quarter
past three it was launched into the
water, by means of rollers placed
on deal planks. Previous to being
launched, there was a temporary
ladder fixed to one end, in order to
ascertain which answered best, that
or the gills. As soon as it was
launched there was one ton and a
half of ballast taken on board; his
lordship and a lieutenant of the na-
vy, and some sailors, &c., went on
board; having no sails, they rowed
up and down the pond, then twice
round; the men at the oars kept
pulling regularly; when it was
found that the gills beat the rudder
in volocity, and turned coastways
with greater ease, having the ad-
vantage of returning back without
pulling about ship. After the first
trial there was another ton of bal-
last taken on board. After being
an hour on the water the second
time, during which his lordship
marked down his remarks, about 5
o'clock the masts were put on
board, the canvas spread, with the
union jack at the mainmast head:
she then sailed most majestically
with a light wind, and nothing
could possibly make a grander ap-
pearance. She returned with the
other head foremost, without put-
ting about. The spectators were

highly gratified at the sight, which
made amends for the disappoint-
ment in the morning on account of
the delay. His lordship, after try-
ing several experiments in round-
ing, tacking, and keeping to a cer-
tain point, landed about six o'clock,
and expressed his perfect satisfac-
tion, and confidence in having suc-
ceeded in his design; the benefits
and advantages of which are nume-
rous, and are as follows:—that
there is one-third of the expence
saved in the construction of a se-
venty-four; that on account of being
rather flat-bottomed, it will carry
more tonnage; it will navigate in
very shallow water, and over break-
ers or sunken rocks, without the
risk that a ship without a keel runs;
on approaching any rock or coast,
it can immediately retire, without
loss of time in putting about; does
not require half the sails, all of
which can be worked by the men on
the deck, without going aloft; the
composition which covers it is infi-
nitely cheaper than copper, and an-
swers the same purpose; it can sail
nearly against the wind, by working
the gills; with many other advan-
tages with which we are as yet un-
acquainted. Several experienced
officers expressed themselves very
warmly in favour of it. The next
trial will be in the presence of some
of the lords of the admiralty, &c.

On Monday, December the 14th,
between break of day and sunrise,
a terrestrial meteor was seen from
Poughkeepsie, in the state of New
York, flaming across the heavens in
a direction from N. W. to S E.
Apparently it was as large as the
moon at full, inconceivably light, and
travelled with amazing velocity,
leaving a luminous train behind.
The light occasioned thereby, when
it crossed the zenith, was nearly
equal to mid-day. A ridge of hea-
vy, dark clouds lay along the south
and east, behind which it passed when
it had arrived within about 30 de-
grees of the horizon, illuminating
the cloud, for a moment, in all its

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parts. Within about four or five
minutes, a heavy explosion was
heard, from the region of the hea-
vens where it disappeared, resem-
bling the discharge of cannon.

On the 17th of October, 1788,
about six or seven o'clock in the
evening, a meteor of similar des-
cription passed over this and the
New England states, first appear-
ing in the S. E., and exploding in
the W., about 30 degrees above the
horizon.

On Monday, December 14, about
break of day or a little after, the
weather being moderate, calm, and
the atmosphere somewhat cloudy
and foggy, a meteor or fire-ball,
passing from a northern point, dis-
ploded over the western part of
Connecticut, with a tremendous re-
port. At the same time several
pieces of stony substance fell to the
earth in Fairfield county. One
mass was driven against a rock
and dashed into small pieces, a peck
of which remained on the spot.
About three miles distant, in the
town of Weston, another large
piece fell upon the earth, of which

a mass of about thirty pounds
weight remains entire, and was ex-
hibited the same day at town meet-
ing. A small mass has been sent to
Yale college, and examined by a
number of gentlemen. It was im-
mediately perceived by professor
Silliman to contain a metal; and on
presenting it to a magnet, a power-
ful attraction proved it to be iron.

This is, we believe, the first in-
stance in the United States, in which
the substance of this species of me-
teor has been found on the earth,
though it has been often in Europe.
Fortunately the facts respecting this
wonderful phenomenon are capable
of being ascertained and verified
with precision, and an investigation
will, we understand, be immediately
commenced for the purpose.

Gentlemen who may have ob-
served it in distant parts of the
state are requested to favour the
public with their observations. It
is desirable to ascertain the course
or direction of the meteor; the point
of compass in which it appeared at
different places; its general appear-
ance and velocity; the manner of
its explosion, and the time between
the explosion and the report.


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