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FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE.

1. ONE of the most interesting
spectacles to be seen in or near
London is the free-school of Mr.
Lancaster, about two hundred
yards from the obelisk, in St.
George's fields. In this school
nearly one thousand poor children
are rapidly taught reading, writ-
ing, and arithmetic, by one mas-
ter, on the plan of Mr. Lancaster,
for a total expence not exceeding
three hundred pounds per annum.
The leading principle is, that the
senior classes teach the junior,
and that emulation through every
class is excited by rewards and
promotion. The methods of
teaching are also much simplified:
the children learn to read and
write the alphabet at the same
time, by forming the letters in
sand with their fingers, as each
letter is successively called by the
monitor; they afterwards learn to
read and write monosyllables in
the same manner, and the preci-
sion and rapidity with which the
smallest children perform these
operations is very surprizing. By
this plan, the children of the poor
may be initiated in the first rudi-
ments of knowledge.



2. An extent of nearly five
miles of the Worcester and Bir-
mingham canal, from Hopwood
to Tardebig, has recently been
opened. On the same day a
number of vessels arrived at the
wharf of Tardebig, with upwards of
300 tons of coals, which were sold
immediately, on such terms as to
ensure a continuance of supply of
that indispensable article of com-
fort. This must prove of vast
importance to the owners of coal
mines communicating with that
canal. The conclusion of this
work is now anticipated with ea-
gerness, on account of the advan-
tage it will be to the port of Bris-
tol, as this canal is intended to en-
ter the deep water of the Severn
below Hereford, which will ren-
der the conveyance between Bris-
tol and Birmingham certain,
cheap, and expeditious.

3. The first foundation stone of
the intended new corn exchange,
in Brunswick-street, Liverpool,
was laid on the 24th of April.
This building is intended for a
general resort of the corn mer-
chants, on the plan of the ex-
change in Mark-lane; and, consi-

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dering that Liverpool is the seat
of the second corn market in the
kingdom, it is somewhat surpriz-
ing that an establishment of this
kind has not been instituted be-
fore. It will be a very handsome
structure, with a stone front to
Brunswick-street, of plain Grecian
architecture. Like the new ex-
change buildings, it is erected by
subscription; a fund of 10,000l.
having been raised, by shares of
100l. each.

4. A Catalogue Raisonnée is
preparing for the English press,
of the library of the late sultaun
Tippoo Saib, which, after his
death, was conveyed entire from
Seringapatam to the college at
Calcutta. It consisted of upwards
of 2000 manuscripts, in the Ara-
bic, Persian, and Hindoostanee
languages, many of them highly
curious.

5. Among the other absurdities
of the admirers of black letter,
and of the literary petitis-maitres,
who give enormous prices for
useless books, a “modern an-
tique” is announced in England, in
a fac-simile reprint of the first fo-
lio edition of the works of Shaks-
peare, in which it is boasted that
the type and paper are exactly to
correspond with that of the musty
original!

6. The advantages arising
from an application of the stereo-
type invention to the manufacture
of books are not confined to any
particular department of the
printing business. The wear of
moveable types,
in stereotyping,
does not exceed five per cent. of
the heavy expence incurred by the
old method of printing. The ex-
penditure on composition and
reading is nearly the same by
both methods, for a first edition:
but this great expence must be

repeated for every succeeding
edition from moveable types. By
the stereotype plan it ceases for
ever.
The expence of stereotype
plates
is not 20 per cent. of that
of moveable type pages. The
expenditure on paper and press-
work
is the same by both me-
thods; but it is not incurred at the
same time. The old method re-
quires an advance of capital for a
consumption of four years; by
stereotype, half a year's stock is
more than sufficient. It follows,
therefore, that 12½ per cent. of
the capital hitherto employed in
paper and press-work is fully ade-
quate to meet an equal extent of
sale. A fire-proof room will hold
stereotype plates of works, of
which the dead stock in printed
paper would require a ware-house
twenty times the size; and thus
ware-house rent and insurance are
saved; with the additional advan-
tage, in case of accident by fire,
that the stereotype plates may be
instantly put to press, instead of
going through the tedious opera-
tions of moveable type printing;
and thus no loss will be sustained
from the works being out of print.
In stereotype, every page of the
most extensive work has a sepa-
rate plate; all the pages, there-
fore, must be equally new and
beautiful. By the old method,
the types of each sheet are dis-
tributed, and with them the suc-
ceeding sheets are composed; so
that, though the first few sheets
of a volume may be well printed,
the last part of the same volume,
in consequence of the types being
in a gradual state of wear as the
work proceeds, will appear very
inferior. The stereotype posses-
ses a security against error that
no book from moveable types ever
can attain. The inaccuracies of

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language, the incorrectness of or-
thography, the blunders in punc-
tuation, and the accidental mis-
takes continually occurring in
printing by moveable types, and
to which every new edition super-
adds errors, are completely cured
by the stereotype invention. Ste-
reotype plates admit of alteration,
and will yield at least twice the
number of impressions that move-
able types are capable of produ-
cing. All the preceding advan-
tages may be perpetuated, by the
facility with which stereotype
plates are cast from stereotype
plates. From the whole it re-
sults, that a saving of 25 to 40
per cent. will accrue to the pub-
lic in the prices of all books of
standard reputation and sale,
which comprehend three-fourths
of all the book printing of Eng-
land, Scotland, and Ireland.

7. On the 18th of May, the
foundation stone of Downing col-
lege was laid by the master, pro-
fessors, and fellows, first appointed
by the charter. The university
assembled in St. Mary's church,
and, after hearing a sermon preach-
ed by the public orator Dr. Outram,
went in procession to the site of
the intended college. There the
master delivered a suitable address
in Latin, and deposited in the
stone specimens of the different
coins of the present reign, and
placed over them a plate, on
which was engraved an inscription
containing a short memorial of
the origin of the foundation and the
objects of the institution. Mr.
Watts, the university printer, de-
posited in the stone the first ste-
reotype plate cast in this univer-
sity.

8. The minutes of the last con-
ference of the methodists, held at
Leeds, in August, 1806, represent

the numbers of that society to be
as follows:

                 
In Great Britain  110,803 
In Ireland  23,773 
Gibraltar  40 
Nova Scotia, New Bruns-
wick, and Newfoundland 
1,418 
West-India whites  1,775 
Coloured people, &c.  13,165 
United States whites,  95,628 
Coloured people, &c.  24,316 
Total  270,919 

Of these upwards of 109,000 are
found in England and Wales, to
which may be added 109,000
more who have not ventured to
have their names enrolled; and
to these may be added the young-
er branches of families, making
about 218,000 more, forming in
the whole nearly half a million of
persons.

9. The number of shipwrights
necessary for building ships of war,
withing twelve months, are respec-
tively as follows:

           
Men  Guns  About tons. 
47  74  1,700 
27  36  900 
11  18  430 
Brig  380 
Gun vessel  180 

10. A new institution for the
reform of female prostitutes is
about to be established in London,
under the name of the London
Female Penitentiary. The object
is the same as the Magdalen; but
comparative advantages will re-
sult from peculiarities in the res-
pective plans: and distinguishing
features of the London Female
Penitentiary will be the co-opera-
tion of intelligent and pious ladies
in the regulation of the charity,
and a prompt admission of appli-
cants into a temporary ward.
The external management of the
affairs of the institution is to be en-

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trusted to a committee of thirty-
six gentlemen, together with a
treasurer and secretary; and to a
committee of twenty-four ladies is
to be exclusively confided the
management of its internal eco-
nomy.

11. The number of printing-
offices in London are upwards of
two hundred, and they employ at
least five hundred presses. In
Edinburgh there were, in 1763,
six printing-offices; in 1790, twen-
ty-one; in 1800, thirty; in 1805,
forty. In the forty printing-offi-
ces now in Edinburgh, are em-
ployed upwards of a hundred and
twenty printing-presses.

12. Mr. Rigo, in the course of
various experiments, has discover-
ed that of all the modes of com-
pensation, that of triangles is the
best. He has accordingly con-
structed one of triangles, two
sides of which are steel, and the
base brass or zinc, which ex-
pands twice as much as steel; and
hence the expansion of the sides
is properly counteracted by the
expansion of the base. In this
way pendulums may be construct-
ed of any series of triangles, that
would continue the same length
throughout all climates and sea-
sons.

13. Mr. E. Walker, of London,
has invented a new optical ma-
chine, called the phantasmascope,
which is intended to afford enter-
tainment to those who derive
pleasure from optical illusions.
To a person standing before this
machine, a door is apparently
opened, and a phantom makes its
appearance, coming towards him,
and increasing in magnitude as it
approaches. This phantom ap-
pears in the air like a beautiful
painting, and in such brilliancy of
colouring that it is not necessary

to make the room dark; this pic-
ture appears to the greatest ad-
vantage when illuminated. Mr.
W. has applied his machine to
represent the phases of the moon,
the primary planets, and other
phenomena in the heavens.

14. Mr. C. Varley has laid be-
fore the public some remarks on
atmospherical phenomena, parti-
cularly on the formation of clouds;
their permanence; their precipi-
tation in rain, snow, and hail; and
the consequent rise of the baro-
meter. The inferences drawn by
him are, 1. That no cloud can be
formed, or exist without electricity.
2. That no cloud can fall in rain
till it parts with some of its elec-
tricity. 3. That in fine weather
the earth must be giving electri-
city to the atmosphere by means
of vapour, and in stormy weather
the atmosphere must be giving
electricity to the earth by means
of vapour, rain, or lightning. 4.
That in fine weather the clouds
are separating, and in stormy
weather uniting. 5. That elec-
tricity is the suspending power in
clouds. 6. That dry air is a con-
ductor of heat, but a non-conduct-
or of electricity. 7. That water
can exist permanently in four
states, and temporarily in one only.
Two of these are effected by elec-
tricity and three without it. The
first electrical state is that of cloud,
which is so much charged as to
become lighter than air at the sur-
face of the earth; the second is a
complete saturation of water with
the electric fluid, which produces
a transparent and elastic fluid, light
enough to float above the highest
clouds. The first of the three
other states is ice; the second is
liquid; the third which is quite
temporary, is vapour; for as soon
as the supply of heat by which it

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is raised from the earth is with-
drawn, it condenses and returns
again to the state of water. When
a cloud loses its electricity in an
atmosphere below the freezing
point, snow is produced, for the
vapours will be frozen in the act
of uniting; and particles of mois-
ture united into rain, and passing
through a cold region in their de-
scent to the earth, will come down
in the form of hail.

15. The mineral waters of
Lipetzk, in the province of Tam-
bow, in Russia, have lately been
analyzed by M. Skell, and are
found to contain in one pound as
follows:

             
Carbonat of iron  29/16 grains 
————— of lime  3/86 
Muriate of magnesia  8/25 
————— of soda  2 1/12 
Sulphate of lime  1/8 
————— of soda  1/2 nearly 
Bitumen  7/100 

From this analysis, and other ac-
curate observations, it seems that
the water of Lipetzk has some
analogy to that of Pyrmont: it
has, however, less of the irritating
quality, with regard to the carbo-
nic; less of the power of solution
with respect to salts, and more of
the tonic powers of iron. On
these accounts M. S. asserts that
the water of Lipetzk stimulates,
gives vigour, increases the elasti-
city of the muscular fibres and
the activity of the organs, enriches
the blood, and imparts more co-
lour to it; while on the other
hand it liquefies tenacious, slimy,
and condensed fluids, removes ob-
structions in the canals, qualifies
the sharpness of humours, and
destroys worms.

16. France will soon be pre-
sented with the narrative of the
voyage of discovery in the South
Seas, performed during the years

1800, 1801, 1802, 1803, and 1804.
It will comprehend the manners
and description of the people; and
the natural philosophy and meteo-
rology, forming together four
quarto volumes. It will be drawn
up by Peron and Lesueur, and be
printed at the expence of govern-
ment. The part containing the na-
tural history will be published by
subscription.

17. M. Tenon has lately pre-
sented to the National Institute
a description of the teeth of the
cahalot and crocodile. The teeth
of the former have no enamel,
but only the osseous cortex. The
one may be easily distinguished
from the other, because the ena-
mel is much harder, and is en-
tirely dissolved in the acids, with-
out leaving any gelatinous paren-
chyme. The tusks of the ele-
phant and the grinders of the
bear have no other envelope.

The same able anatomist is
about to publish an important work
on the eye, and its diseases. He
has made several new remarks
upon the parts which surround
this organ; he has found some
tendinous lumps which tie the
straight muscles to the anterior
edges of the orbit, and serve them
for a kind of returning pulley, and
hinder them from compressing
the eye-ball; he has unfolded a
membranous tunic which sur-
rounds the eye-ball, attaches it to
the two angles of the orbit by two
kinds of wings, passes into the pu-
pils, and is there reflected behind
the tarsi, and gives a passage to
the tendons of the muscles: he
has established a new opinion on
the agents which transmit to the
iris the action of the retina, and
by which the impressions received
by the latter dilate or contract the
other; these agents he finds in the

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ciliary processes, the tongues of
which are prolonged behind the
iris, and the tails of them touch
the retina.

He has also discovered that
the hare-lip sometimes pro-
ceeds from a rent of the maxillary
bones, sometimes from a rent in
both; and he attributes the cause
of it to a disproportionate dilatation
of the tongue. It is highly dan-
gerous to perform any operation
for the hare-lip at the time when
the teeth are cutting.

18. Duvernoy, a young physi-
cian, has presented to the National
Institute a memoir upon the hy-
men, in which he has shown that
this singular membrane, hitherto
generally regarded as peculiar to
the human species, is also found in
every animal.

19. Ducum has given a new
method of determining the lati-
tude at sea by two altitudes.
The time which we deduce
from an observation made at the
moment the sun passes by the
prime vertical is exact, whatever
may be the error which affects
the latitude by account, which is
requisite to be used in most of the
methods now followed. By this
first observation, and the exact
time to be deduced from it, the
watch is regulated; and at any
other time of the day a new alti-
tude, with this exact time being
known by the preceding operation,
will give the true latitude. Com-
missioners have been appointed to
examine this method, who report
that it will give the latitude very
exactly, whatever may be the er-
ror in the latitude by account, when,
as the method requires, one of the
two altitudes shall have been taken
exactly at the passage by the
prime vertical, or very near it.

20. Leupold has lately read to

the Society of Arts and Sciences
at Bourdeaux, a memoir on the
generation of surfaces of the se-
cond order. All of them may re-
sult from one common generation,
which is executed by a curve of
the second kind, variable in its di-
mensions, and moved in such a
manner that its plane may al-
ways remain parallel to itself.
The equations which point out this
circumstance give the law of the
motion of the generatrix. This
curve will be an ellipsis for surfa-
ces having a centre, and a para-
bola for surfaces having no centre.
In the case where each of the
points of the generating curve has
a right line for its direction, the
surface may be engendered by a
straight line moved in space.
The analytical condition for this to
happen indicates the hyperbolic
paraboloid, and the parabolic cy-
linder. The common generatrix
to all these surfaces may become
a circle, except with regard to the
two last.

21. The opening of the south
London water-works, in Kenning-
ton-lane, took place on the 16th
of June. The works consist of
the engine house, with the ap-
paratus, which is on a simple
plan. Two reservoirs, or tanks,
containing 26,000 butts, each ten
feet deep, are supplied from the
river Thames, to the height of
the spring tide, and are worked
by the steam engine upwards of
three feet above the whole level;
the water is then left to purify
itself in the two reservoirs, and
by the same engine is lifted fifty
feet above its level, and supplies
the inhabitants of Clapham, Cam-
berwell, and its surrounding
neighbourhood, and might be
conveyed one hundred miles
round, on a level. A large com-

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pany of nobility and gentry were
present. Mr. R. Dodd was the
engineer.

22. The royal naval asylum has
been transplanted from Padding-
ton to Pelham house, in Green-
wich park, which has been for
some time undergoing the neces-
sary repairs and extensions, to
render it at once commodious for
the purposes of its intention, and
ornamental as a public building.
On the east and west two capa-
cious wings are added, connected
with the centre building by hand-
some colonnades. The lower part
of each wing is to be appropriat-
ed to the school rooms for the
children, male and female re-
spectively; the upper parts as
dormtories for them and the
servants of the institution. It is
proposed immediately to extend
the whole number of pupils to
1000, from every part of the
united kingdom. The boys are
taught reading, writing, and
figures; and, where their capa-
cities display fitness, are to be
instructed in navigation; and,
during the hours of relaxation,
the elder boys are taught rope
and sail making; and they are to
be instructed in the rudiments of
naval discipline, by regular ve-
teran boatswains. The girls are
taught to read and write, and are
instructed in needle-work and
household industry. The build-
ing fills up the vista between
both wings of Greenwich college,
to which it seems to form an ap-
propriate centre; and it is intend-
ed that the whole shall be imme-
diately completed, for the recep-
tion of pupils, officers, &c.

23. The Liverpool bill of mor-
tality, for the year 1806, exhibits
some very satisfactory proofs of the
increasing healthiness and popula-

tion of that large and improving
town. The number of deaths is
only 2395, being 446 less than
the preceding year, and, comput-
ing a population of 80,000, it
amounts only to about one in 33,
which is a less proportion than
obtains in any other town of equal
size in the kingdom. The num-
ber of births is 3831; so that the
increase of inhabitants by births
alone, in a single year, is no less
than 1536, exclusive of the in-
crease from various other causes.

24. Lately was opened for the
public reception of merchant's ves-
sels, the grand Surrey canal dock
at Rotherhithe, amidst the accla-
mations of the populace, and a nu-
merous assemblage of the gentle-
men proprietors, who afterwards
retired to the London tavern, din-
ed and spent the evening with
conviviality. The vessels entered
the dock under a salute of cannon,
streamers flying, with a martial
band of music, playing popular
airs. This dock or bason, from
its extensive capacity, will contain
about 100 sail of square-rigged
vessels, at any draught of water in
which they can approach the pool.
This public work was first sug-
gested and laid out by Mr. Dodd,
the engineer, and an act of parlia-
ment immediately after obtained
for its execution. The dock and
main line of canal and collateral
cuts are as follows: The ship
dock immediately communicating
with the river Thames, a little be-
low the king's mills, Rotherhithe,
gives admission into the grand
dock or bason. On the north,
south, east, and west side of the
latter, is an extensive site for build-
ing wharfs, warehouses, &c.; and
in the centre of the dock or bason
a large island for the same pur-
pose, to which there is access by a

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draw-bridge. The convenience
of this dock for the erection of
warehouses, granaries, depots for
coals, &c., so near the metropolis,
sufficiently speaks for its utility.
The main line of canal, passing
from the dock or bason, runs near-
ly in a south line on the west of
Deptford, and from thence in a
west line crossing the Kent, Cam-
berwell, and Clapham roads, en-
ters the Thames again at Vaux-
hall creek, a little above the site
where the intended stone bridge,
now before parliament, is proposed
to be carried over the Thames.
Attached to this main line is a
collateral cut to Peckham, Horse-
monger lane, Southwark, and
Butt-lane, Deptford; the whole of
this range of eight miles is upon
one entire level, without a lock,
and peninsulates the south of the
metropolis, with which the Croy-
don canal forms a junction, that
is proposed to be finished in the
course of this summer, with the
part of the main line before de-
scribed now that the dock has
opened a communication with the
Thames. The upper lines and
levels of this canal extend from
Kennington common, along the
wash-way to Rushey green, Stock-
well, passing in the vicinity of
Clapham and Tooting to Mit-
cham. The company of proprie-
tors are now applying to parlia-
ment to make a collateral cut from
the bricklayer's arms to the main
line of the canal near where it
crosses the Kent road, for the
use of passage boats, by which
means much facility will be given
to persons passing from London
to Peckham, Deptford, Green-
wich, and parts adjacent; as well
as to Croydon, and hereafter to
more distant parts of the county.

25. The establishment of the

royal naval college at Portsmouth
is to be considerably increased, and
there is to be a mathematical pro-
fessor to superintend it, with a sa-
lary of 600l. per annum. The
senate of Cambridge are request-
ed to nominate three graduates
of the university, who are well
skilled in mathematics, and the
lords of the admiralty are to make
choice of one of them for the pro-
fessorship.

26. Casimir Baccher, a boy
who has astonished all Paris by
his performances on the harp, ar-
rived in England, in July, 1807.
His taste, skill, and knowledge
have excited surprize and admira-
tion in the best judges and most
able performers. As this extra-
ordinary boy was under the patron-
age of some persons of distinction,
it was not certain that he would be
permitted to exert his talents in
public.

27. Redowski, who had been
nominated botanist to the project-
ed embassy from the court of Rus-
sia to China, is engaged in a very
extensive botanical tour, at the
emperor's expence, through the
most remote north-eastern dis-
stricts of Asia, including the
islands between that continent and
Japan to the southward, and the
coast of North America to the
eastward. He will be accompa-
nied by a mathematician, who is
to make astronomical observa-
tions.

28. Some very curious letters
have appeared respecting the Mo-
ravian colony established at Sa-
repta. They have been published
by M. Bergmann. This sect,
which is likewise known under the
appellation of hernhutters, rec-
kons nearly one hundred brothers,
and an equal number of unmar-
ried sisters, at Sarepta. By the

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manufacture of linen, which con-
stitutes their principal occupation,
the men as well as the women
earn about twelve rubles a month.
The trade of the colony is not,
however, confined to this branch
alone, but is extended to every
other. The profits arising from
their different occupations are
shared in common by the whole
community; for which purpose,
each workman deposits his salary
in a public chest. The articles
manufactured in the Moravian es-
tablishments are greatly valued;
and, though sold at a high
price, they are yet much sought
after.

29. In the course of 1806,
among the deaths in the extensive
empire of Russia, there were,

                 
between  145 and 150  years of age. 
————  130 and 135  ———— 
————  125 and 130  ———— 
————  120 and 125  ———— 
32  ————  115 and 120  ———— 
26  ————  110 and 115  ———— 
86  ————  105 and 110  ———— 
137  ————  100 and 105  ———— 
1134  ————  95 and 100  ———— 

30. Dr. Frydenberg, of Ice-
land, has sent to the society of ru-
ral economy of Copenhagen, a
memoir on the possibility of con-
verting the seetang (a marine
plant, which abounds in the sea
that washes the shore of that
island and other parts of the Da-
nish dominions) into food fit for
man. If the means proposed for
this purpose should prove success-
ful, he will have the satisfaction of
conferring an inestimable benefit
on Iceland, a country so ill pro-
vided with alimentary produc-
tions, that all the precautions of
government are sometimes found
ineffectual to preserve the inhabi-
tants from the horrors of famine.
Hitherto the seetang has been

used in Denmark only for fuel,
and in Norway for making kelp.

31. A life boat, improved in
Denmark by captain Saelling, has
been sent to Petersburgh, and it
is intended to construct several on
the same model, in the Russian
ports.

32. A new map of the Feroe
islands has appeared in Denmark,
constructed by Mr. Loeververn, a
distinguished naval officer. It
comprehends a space from latitude
61° 25′ to latitude 62° 25′, and
there is annexed to it a minute
and interesting description of this
little known part of the Danish
dominions.

33. The theatre royal at Co-
penhagen, in the course of 1806,
had 158 performances; among
the pieces represented were nine
translations, and only one original
Danish comedy, by professor San-
der, entitled The Hospital.

34. A clergyman of Nykoebing
has given the description of a Da-
nish island, the name of which is
scarcely known to the Danes
themselves. This island is called
Mors, and is situated in the north-
east part of Jutland, and formed
by the great gulf of Limfiord,
which penetrates into the interior
of the peninsula. Its population
amounts to 8,100, who speak a
language peculiar to themselves,
a glossary of which has lately
been published, containing 700
words not known elsewhere.

35. An institution for the deaf
and dumb has for several years
been established at Kiel, with
good success. Another institu-
tion of this nature is now esta-
blishing at Copenhagen, at the
expence of government. It will
consist of three teachers, besides
one female teacher, and forty pu-

 image pending 364

pils. Seventy rix-dollars (14l.
sterling) are to be paid annually
for every pupil, which will be de-
frayed by the pupils themselves,
or their parents, when they can
afford it, otherwise by the poor-
chest of the district to which they
belong. Dr. Castberg, who has
travelled two years to inspect the
best institutions of this kind in
Europe, and who has laid down
the plan for this establishment, is
appointed the head teacher of this
institution.

36. Professor Boettiger conti-
nued last winter, at Dresden, his
archaeological lectures with the
success that might justly be ex-
pected to attend so learned an an-
tiquary. In general, the taste for
literature, which the disastrous
events of the war had disturbed,
but not extinguished, begins to
revive in that capital of the newly
created kingdom of Saxony. A
translation of the Lusiad of Ca-
moens, by MM. Kuhn and Wink-
ler, has lately been published
there, which evinces much accu-
racy and poetical talent.

37. The chevalier von Hogel-
muller, of Vienna, who will set
out, in the end of November, to
travel in the east, for the purpose
of elucidating the natural history
of the horse, has offered his ser-
vices to the agricultural society of
Copenhagen, to receive queries
respecting natural history in ge-
neral, and other subjects.

38. Mr. counsellor Seyffert con-
tinues to observe the newly-dis-
covered planet. He has calculat-
ed, by approximation, the orbit of
that planet, from observations
made at Munich up to the 1st of
May. His conclusions aver, that
its mean motion is greater than
that of Juno, of Ceres, and of Pal-
las; that the eccentricity of its

orbit is greater than that of Ceres,
and less than that of Juno and
Pallas; that the inclination is like-
wise less than that of the three
other planets, as well as its mean
distance from the sun; that it is
the eleventh principal planet of
our solar system, and that it
moves betwixt Mars and Jupiter.

39. The first number of a col-
lection of poisonous plants engrav-
ed on stone, the appearance of the
prints being equal to that of well
executed wood cuts, has been re-
cently published at Ratisbon.
This number contains ten plates,
and the generic and specific cha-
racters of the following plants are
pointed out: viz., aconitum napel-
lus,
wolf's bane; anemone praten-
sis,
meadow anemone; caltha pe-
lustris,
marsh marigold; delphi-
nium staphysagria; helleborus
faetidus,
bear's foot; helleborus
niger,
black hellebore; ranuncu-
lus flammula,
small spear-wort;
and ficaria acris, and scelerata.
The author of this work, M. Key-
ser, has added a chapter on the
methods of discovering an accu-
mulation of mephitic gas in any
situation, and the best means of
dissipating it with safety.

40. The French have lately
been successful in naturalizing
cotton and indigo in their southern
provinces, and their attention is
now directed to the New Zealand
flax, phormium tenax, or phormium
textile,
of the botanists. Captain
Cook first discovered this plant,
which unites, in a superior degree,
the useful qualities of the hemp
and flax of Europe. It is now
cultivated with success in Norfolk
island; and captain Bandin, in his
late voyage round the world,
brought from thence nine plants
to France. Under the care of
Thouin, these have brought their

 image pending 365

seeds to maturity, and seedlings
have been since sent to the de-
partments of Seine Inferior, He-
rault, La Drome, Le Var, and to
the island of Corsica. The young
plants are found to thrive well in
the most southern of these pro-
vinces.

41. M. Cassas has presented
the Parisian public with a new
kind of exhibition. It consists of
plaster-models of the most cele-
brated ancient edifices, of differ-
ent kinds of architecture. These
models are in number seventy-
four, and are arranged under the
divisions of Egyptian, Indian, Per-
sian, Grecian, Etruscan, Cyclo-
pean, Celtic, and Roman architect-
ure.

42. Vauquelin, professor of che-
mistry in the museum of natural
history at Paris, has analyzed va-
rious specimens of ore from the
famous silver mine of Guadal-Ca-
nal, in Estremadura, and discover-
ed in them platina, united with sil-
ver, copper, iron, antimony, arse-
nic, lead, and sulphur, sometimes
amounting to one-tenth of the
mass.

43. Dejoux, of Paris, has just
finished a model of a colossal sta-
tue of general Dessaix, which is
intended to be cast in bronze, and
placed on the pedestal in the
Place des Victoires. It is univer-
sally judged to be the master-piece
of this sculptor, who, although in
his seventieth year, appears to re-
tain all the vigour and spirit of
youth.

44. A recent statistical account
of Holland states the population
of that country to amount to two
millions, a much greater propor-
tion to the soil than is found in
any other country. The national
revenues are stated at 150 millions
of florins. The foreign fisheries

are very much decayed, and the
whale-fishery, which is mentioned
as a losing concern, is stated to
support 15,000 individuals. The
herring and cod-fisheries are still
of much importance to the pros-
perity of Holland, though other
nations have obtained so large a
share in this species of industry.

45. Holland, a country where
medicine has been taught with
such success, does not possess any
work, the object of which is to ap-
ply physical science to the inter-
pretation of the laws. For the
purpose of supplying this deside-
ratum, Dr. Resteloot, an eminent
physician, has been engaged, dur-
ing the last four years, in collect-
ing materials from all the medical
writers who had peculiarly devot-
ed their talents to this branch of
study; such as Frank, Arneman,
and Plenck in Germany; Foderé
and Mahon in France; Vesace
and Cardile in Italy, &c. As the
work is chiefly intended for the
learned, the doctor has written it
in the latin language. From the
plan and known abilities of the
author, and the luminous deve-
lopement of all the parts of his
subject, it is confidently expected
that it cannot fail meeting with
the approbation of the Dutch pub-
lic and government, as the most
complete treatise that has yet ap-
peared on medical jurisprudence.

46. Printing-presses are order-
ed to be established in all the
great towns of the kingdom of
Naples, and the bishops have been
invited to see that they are in ac-
tivity throughout every province.

47. There has been discovered
at Montefiascone, in a field ad-
joining the high road, a small ca-
vern cut in the rock. The pro-
prietor of the ground having de-
scended into it, found two dead

 image pending 366

bodies stretched upon a table of
stone, apparently in good preser-
vation, but which crumbled into
dust as soon as they were touched.
Upon another table were placed
several vessels of earth and metal,
which have been sent to Rome, in
order to be placed in the museum
of antiquities belonging to the Va-
tican library.

48. The king of Naples (Jo-
seph Bonaparte), by a decree dat-
ed 17th March, has instituted a
new academy of history and anti-
quities, which is to consist of forty
members. The first twenty are
nominated by the king; and these
twenty are to present to him, for
his choice, three names, for each
of those wanted to complete the
above number. The king ap-
points a perpetual secretary, and
the academy has the power to
elect a president for three months.
The directors of the museum, of
the fowller excavations, and of the
royal press, are always to be mem-
bers. The minister of the royal
household will annually allot to
the academy 8000 ducats, to be
for current expences, &c., and
2000 for prizes to the authors of
four works, which, according to
the judgment of the academy,
shall be most deserving of such a
reward. There will be a grand
meeting every year, when the
prizes are to be distributed, and an-
alyses of the works read. The aca-
demy may nominate a correspon-
dent in each of the fourteen pro-
vinces of the kingdom. The
members will enjoy the privilege
of being admitted to court. The
first meeting was held on the 25th
of April. The king, after having
received the oaths of the mem-
bers, pronounced an oration re-
plete with expressions of the live-
ly interest he takes in the labours

of the learned men thus brought
together. M. Francesco Daniele,
the perpetual secretary, in his re-
ply, gave a sketch of the glorious
epoch when Naples was the cra-
dle of the arts and the sciences.

49. Dr. Anderson, physician-
general and president of the medi-
cal board at Madras, has made pub-
lic some highly interesting facts
respecting the progress of vacci-
nation in India. He declares,
that no serious alarm has been
caused by the small-pox in that
vast extent of country which is
now subject to Great Britain in
India, since the introduction of
vaccine inoculation; nor has the
vaccine matter, although trans-
ferred from one human subject to
another for four or five years,
produced any other disease. The
cow-pox, under the direction of
the presidency of Madras, has
resisted the test of 1500 variolous
inoculations. Some of the native
chiefs begin to countenance vac-
cination, and even submit their
own persons to the practice; and
Dr. A. entertains little doubt but
the vaccine lancet will soon be as
familiar to the Hindoos as the
plough or the shuttle. There had
been 429,821 persons successful-
ly vaccinated in that presidency
and its dependencies, between the
beginning of September, 1802,
and the end of May, 1805, at the
expence of 55,865 star pagodas.
Of these, 2816 had been subse-
quently inoculated for the small-
pox, which they all resisted. In
the same presidency, from Sep-
tember 1, 1805, to August 31,
1806, there had been 178,074
other persons vaccinated, of
whom 101,762 were males, and
76,312 females.

50. The folio edition of Cicero de
Officiis, 1465, which, at a late auc-

 image pending 367

tion in London, sold for sixty-
three pounds, was once purchas-
ed by an old Scots usher, at a
book-stall, for one shilling.

Many useful and valuable books
lie buried in shops and libraries,
unknown and unexamined, unless
some lucky compiler opens them
by chance, and finds an easy spoil
of wit and learning.

Several thousand volumes are
annually torn up, by the dealers
in old books about London, who
often find the public so illiberal in
their offers, that tallow-chandlers
and cheesemongers give a better
price for them as waste paper;
and many private persons, in
clearing their apartments, will
sell valuable old books for three
pence per pound, to a chandler:
and yet, from their ignorance of
books, will, at another time, make
no scruple in asking a bookseller
a shilling for an old court calen-
dar; because the cover looks so
nice.

51. The establishment of circu-
lating libraries has greatly contri-
buted to wean many of the mid-
dling classes of society from more
expensive and less innocent pas-
time; they have withdrawn the
poor man from many habits of in-
temperance, and rendered his own
fireside unusually welcome.

At one of these places a quar-
terly subscriber may have the pe-
rusal of as many books, as will
cost him less than one half-penny
per volume; and which if he had
been obliged to purchase, could
not have amounted to less than
three shillings and sixpence each.
But the want of consideration,
the negligence and dishonesty of
many who procure books from
these repositories, is one reason
why we often see the proprietors
retire from the management of a

library, with so much loss and
disgust. But let those readers,
who occasionally profit by a plan
so excellent, remember that no
establishment can be permanent
which is not secure; and that, to
expect a librarian to part with his
books without his receiving a de-
posit of equal value, is just as rea-
sonable, as it would be to take of-
fence with a pawn-broker, for re-
fusing to lend his money on your
bare word and honour.

52. The following particulars
have recently been received from
Prince of Wales's island, respect-
ing the two Russian ships, Na-
deshda and Neva, which were
sent on an expedition to China,
after touching on the north-west
coast of America.

The objects of their voyage
were both political and commer-
cial, and they arrived at Macao in
December, 1805. The Nadesh-
da carried a Russian ambassador
to Japan, where the ships remain-
ed for four or five months, to re-
pair the damage they had suffered
in a gale. Every assistance was
afforded them in this way, and
they were supplied with abun-
dance of provisions; but they
were scarcely allowed to have
any intercourse with the inhabit-
ants, and were not permitted
to trade with them in any man-
ner whatever. The government
would not receive the ambassador,
and very little intercourse was al-
lowed beyond the exchange of let-
ters and compliments, so that the
object of the expedition may be
said to have totally failed.

On their first arrival at Macao,
they experienced some difficulty
and delay getting up to Wham-
poa, till the Chinese were assured
that they were not men of war, but
had come for the purpose of trad-

 image pending 368

ing. They were then allowed to
come up, and reached Whampoa
about the end of December.
They carried on their business in
the usual way; sold their skins
tolerably well, and laid in a cargo
of high-priced teas, with a consi-
derable quantity of nankeens, and
some silk piece-goods.

Captain Krusenstern had the
chief command of the expedition.
His ship, the Nadeshda, belonged
to the Russian government; but
the other was the property of the
Russian American Company, to
whom the emperor gave his ship
for the voyage, free of expence;
besides patronizing the undertak-
ing to a great extent. The chief
commercial object was to open
and establish an intercourse be-
tween St. Petersburgh and Can-
ton, by sea. The company had
appointed an agent, or supercar-
go, to transact the purchase and
sales, and the whole of the com-
mercial part was submitted to his
direction. A dispatch had been
sent to Pekin, to inform the em-
peror of the arrival of the ships,
and no objection was made about
allowing them to sell and pur-
chase in the mean time; or to
getting a security-merchant; but
they could not be allowed to de-
part till the emperor's answer
came back. To this little atten-
tion was paid, and captain Krusen-
stern prepared to sail, and applied
for his grand chop; on which two
men of war's boats were sent
down to Whampoa, to lie by each
of the ships, which created such
alarm, that no provisions were car-
ried on board them for two days.
The commodore remonstrated
with the security-merchant, and re-
presented that such steps were
considered by the Europeans as
amounting very nearly to hostile

measures; advising him to repre-
sent the circumstances to the
viceroy. Captain Krusenstern al-
so sent in a moderate remon-
strance himself, and concluded
with demanding his grand chop,
as further delay would be of ma-
terial injury to his voyage. The
restrictions at Whampoa were on
this immediately removed, and in
a few days the grand chops for
both were issued. They left
Whampoa on the 9th of Februa-
ry, 1806, and on the 12th or 14th,
the imperial edict arrived at Can-
ton from Pekin; but, the ships
having sailed, its contents were
only imperfectly known. It was,
however, understood, that the
purport of it was by no means fa-
vourable to the Russians; that
the emperor did not approve of
the continuance of the inter-
course by sea, but recommended
the old mode by caravans, which
he pronounced the best for the
Russians, and the most agreeable
to him. Some trivial questions
were also inserted as to the mo-
tives for the voyage; how the
Russians could have found their
way to China, and if they had
been in England? On the whole,
it was evident that there was a
strong jealousy on the part of the
Chinese at the good understanding
which they perceived to exist be-
tween the English and Russians.

When this event happened at
Whampoa, no intelligence had
been received of the grand embas-
sy by land from St. Petersburgh
to Pekin, the failure of which has
been since ascertained.

53. In 1806 a comet was disco-
vered by M. Pons, at Marseilles.
It was observed in the morning of
the 11th of November, and is the
ninety-seventh with which we are
acquainted. It is the sixth which

 image pending 369

M. Pons has discovered since
1801. M. Thulis, director of the
observatory, viewed it as accurate-
ly as the weather would permit;
but the months of November and
December are extremely unfa-
vourable to astronomical pursuits,
even at Marseilles. This comet
was very small, shapeless, without
any sensible nucleus, and not visi-
ble to the naked eye. On the 9th
of November, at 17h. mean time,
it had 181° 3′ right ascension,
and 2° of northern declination.

M. Bouvard and M. Burck-
hardt, at Paris, furnished the ele-
ments of its orbit, and continued
to observe it; on the 18th of De-
cember, at 16h. 26′ mean time,
it had 11h. 12′ 41′′ of right ascen-
sion, and 32° 57′ of declination:
it advanced to the south with great
rapidity, and was not again seen
until the 25th of January.

The following were the ele-
ments calculated on the 29th of
January: inclination 35° 6′; nodes
10s 22° 13′; perihelion 3s 5° 57′;
passage, 28th of December, at
20 hours, movement retrogade:
perihelion distance 1.080. It was
then visible in the evening, having
returned at 29° of south declina-
tion, and at 20° of right ascen-
sion; and they were able to cal-
culate its elements with greater
accuracy.

54. M. Burckhardt gives, in the
fourth volume of the Mécanique
Céleste
of Laplace, an explanation
of the singular phenomenon of the
comet of 1770, which, though
previously invisible, was rendered
visible that year by the attraction
of Jupiter, but which has also ren-
dered it invisible in future. The
comet of 1762, according to M.
Burckhardt, only agreed to 5′, but
the correction of refraction went
the length of 7′, and he rectified

the elements in the following
manner:

         
Nodes  11s   18°  33′  5′′  
Inclination  85  38  13 
Perihelion  14 
Transit,  28th May,  8h.  11′. 
Distance,  1.0090485. 

M. Bessel has made very ex-
tensive researches respecting the
comet of 1769; he found its period
to be about 2100 years, a result he
drew from the whole of Messier's
and Maskelyne's observations,
which he has reduced with the
most scrupulous accuracy. The
errors in the calculation only ex-
tend to 5′′, as well in right ascen-
sion as in declination. The great
number of these observations,
joined to their extreme correct-
ness, inclined him to think that
the result must be extremely pro-
bable.

Messrs. Gauss and Bessel have
calculated the comet of December,
1805, and that of 1772, in an ellip-
sis, and have found so many differ-
ences that it is difficult to suppose
it to have been the same comet;
at least we must suppose it has
suffered some derangements.

M. Gauss calculated that of
1805, in the parabola and ellipsis,
and found that the whole ellipsis,
the great axis of which exceeds
2.82, represents the observations
better than the parabola. He is
of opinion that a great number of
comets may perhaps exist, though
our observations are not sufficient
to prove that the orbits approach
the parabola, and that it is neces-
sary to calculate for each the li-
mits between which the orbit is
contained.

55. On the 21st of May a re-
port was spread at Paris, that the
world would come to an end on
the 25th; and the prediction of
the comet that was to produce

 image pending 370

this awful catastrophe was as-
cribed to Lalande. “I received
(says that astonomer) several let-
ters, informing me that different
persons were taken ill from terror,
in consequence of this report, and
that some of them had actually
died; on which account, a man who
hawked this pretended prediction
about the streets was arrested, and
I found it necessary to disavow it
in the Journal de Paris. On the
25th, however, the occurrence of a
dreadful storm augmented the ge-
neral terror. On the 15th of Ja-
nuary, 1798, I was under the ne-
cessity of making a similar disa-
vowal, several persons having be-
come sick, as on the former occa-
sion.”

56. In the history of comets, in
the Memoirs of the French Acade-
my for 1775, a singular anecdote
occurs, relating to two stars, mark-
ed A and S. The comet had
been discovered near to these
stars on the 8th of August, 1769;
and the letters refer to two natural
daughters of count Charolais,
Adelaide and Sophia, whom M.
Bouret wished to have occasion to
mention when the king was at his
house, where M. Messier intended
to present his chart to his majes-
ty. There is one of these stars in
the large Atlas of M. Bode, but
without any letter attached to it.

57. The Transactions of the
Royal Society of London, for 1804,
contain experiments on the mea-
surement of small angles, and on
the size of planet Harding, by
Herschel; he finds for it the fourth
of a second, but does not positive-
ly decide whether or no it is a real
diameter.

58. M. Pigot gives the changes
of the star of the fifth magnitude,
in Sobieski's Buckler, from 61 ½ to
62 ¾ days, which is sometimes

scarcely visible. He discovered it
in 1795; its position being in right
ascension 279° 9½', declination 5°-
56′ A, June, 1796; its smallest
lustre, 1796, 17th of September
and 18th of November; 1797,
14th of May and 7th of August;
1798, 29th of July and 15th of
September; 1799, 7th of August
and 11th of October; 1800, 14th
of July and 24th of September;
1801, 9th of August. Ninth
magnitude or invisible.

Part of these observations were
made at Fontainbleau in 1803, be-
fore the national institute had ob-
tained liberty for M. Pigot to re-
turn to Britain.

59. Herschel has examined the
effect which would be produced
by the displacement of the solar
system. He reduces to 1° 5′′ the
proper annual movement of six
principal stars, supposing that the
sun was directed towards 245° 52′
of right ascension, and 49° 38′ of
declination. Maskelyne had 5½′′
for the sum of the six annual
movements of these six stars; the
surplus is the effect of the dis-
placement of the sun.

Mr. Herschel has given some
observations on the singular figure
of Saturn. On the 12th of April,
1805, with a seven-foot telescope,
which rendered objects more than
ordinarily distinct, and which
magnified 570 times, he found the
ring whiter, and Saturn yellowish.

With a ten-foot telescope,
which magnified 527 times, he
found the four points of the great-
est curvature at 43°; he compares
it to a parallelogram, the four
corners of which are rounded.

With a forty-foot telescope,
magnifying 360 times, the appear-
ances were the same. The axis
is 32°, the equator 35°; and the
diameter of the greatest curvature

 image pending 371

60°. He discovers in this the ef-
fect of gravitation on the figure of
the planets; there being in this
case two centripetal, and two cen-
trifugal powers, for he has proved
the two rotations of the planet, and
of the ring.

The most distant ring turns
sensibly. The divisions, as well
as the space between the rings,
are obscure.

60. The publication of the se-
cond volume of Bradley's obser-
vations for 1756, and subsequent
years, is interesting to astrono-
mers. Those of his successor
are added, and this volume joins
the first of Maskelyne, which
commenced in 1765.

61. Among the curious and in-
teresting observations made in the
course of 1806, we may reckon
that of the annual parallax of the
stars, which M. Calandrelli thought
he recognized in several stars.
M. Piazzi had given some results
upon this subject, which I noticed
in my history of the preceding
year. The parallax of the Lyre in
declination is 0.875 of the absolute
parallax, and passes very near to
the zenith. M. Piazzi observed it
very sedulously; but we are in-
clined to draw a very different
conclusion from his observations
than that which he wishes to es-
tablish, viz., that the parallax of
the stars has hitherto escaped our
measurements; if it were even
sufficiently large to admit of being
measured, the declination would
not always be the surest method
to employ. M. Piazzi proposes
to continue his researches.

Opusculi Astronomici, printed at
Rome, by Calandrelli and Conti,
contain six memoirs, one of which
is on the annual parallax of the
Lyre, which he finds as at 4° 4′′;
another on the opposition to the

planet Herschel,
1805, and a third
on the elements of its orbit. The
remaining papers are on the eclipse
of the sun in 1806, observed at
Rome and Padua, and calculated
by Conti, on the method of cor-
responding altitudes, and on a
nonagesimal table for the latitude
of Rome.

The parallax of 4° 4′′ would re-
duce the distance of the Lyre to
1600 millions of leagues instead of
7000; but as the parallax of right
ascension of the Lyre varies much
more than the parallax of declina-
tion, it is to be wished that this
method were employed for clear-
ing up this curious question.

The greatest parallax of the
Lyre in right ascension is between
the end of May and the end of
September; in declination be-
tween the end of June and the end
of December; and as it was to-
wards the month of August that
it has been most observed, passing
the meridian at eight o'clock, it is
possible that the difference may
have escaped the most exact ob-
servers.

62. The prolongation of the
meridian, undertaken in 1806, can-
not fail to prove interesting to as-
tronomers.

Since the 2d of May, de La-
place proposed to continue the me-
ridian to the Balearic islands; and
Messrs. Biot, Arago, and Rodri-
guez, the Spanish philosopher,
set out with instruments on the 2d
of September.

During M. Arago's absence,
his place is occupied in the obser-
vatory by M. Claude Louis Ma-
thieu, who was born at Macon, in-
November, 1784, and is extreme-
ly well skilled in astronomical ob-
servations and calculations.

As they were also to determine
the pendulum at 45°, on the 26th

 image pending 372

of July Bouvard and Biot made
trial of the invariable pendulum of
platina, intended to be carried in-
to the different points of the meri-
dian. In order to deduce the sim-
ple pendulum from it, and the va-
riations in gravity, they caused it
to oscillate before the pendulum
of a clock, the pace of which was
perfectly well known, and they
observed from a distance, through
a glass, the coincidence of the
two pendulums; there was not a
minute of uncertainty respecting
the time in which they exactly
agreed.

So early as 1775, Turgot, then
minister, wished to send M. Mes-
sier to Bourdeaux, in order to
have the pendulum at 45°. His
retreat from office prevented the
success of this enterprize; but at
present we are in possession of
much more perfect methods.

M. Biot writes from Barcelona,
on the 22d of September, that
he was received in a very polite
manner by the heads of the Spa-
nish government.

On the 4th of October, he
writes from Tarragosa that the
grand triangle will be easily mea-
sured between the middle of No-
vember and the end of February.

On the 12th of October he set
out for Valentia, and then pro-
ceeded to Cullera, where he in-
tended to fix one station. The
rains still proved an obstacle; but
in the month of November, the
north winds, which are then pre-
valent, would clear the sky.

On the 16th of October, the
small advice-boat, or brigantine,
Le Mystique, which was to carry
the astronomers to the island of
Ivica, arrived; it is unarmed,
goes with sails and oars, and is
commanded by a very zealous and
experienced officer, M. de Vacaro.

The passports of the British ad-
miralty arrived; and the astrono-
mers were to embark at Denia,
fifteen leagues to the south of Va-
lentia. From Denia to Ivica the
distance is only twenty-five
leagues, and this great triangle
would be easily made in the
months of January and February.

On the 23d of October, M. Biot
embarked for Ivica, and returned
on the 10th of November. In con-
sequence of this voyage, it was de-
termined that the port of Mongon,
near Denia, should be chosen as a
station, instead of Cullera, and the
mountain of Camrey, in the island
of Ivica. All the triangles will be
finished in two months; but the
latitudes will not be observed un-
til the end of the year at Formen-
teva, a small island in the neigh-
bourhood of Ivica, where a base
will be measured. M. Chaix has
taken charge of the post of Mon-
gon; M. de Vacaro superintends
another station.

M. de Vandeuil, at Madrid, M.
Biot, at Barcelona, M. la Nusse,
at Valentia, and M. Morand, at
Denia, took much interest in for-
warding the preparations, and fur-
nished every requisite assistance.
Infinite pains and labour were
taken in preparing the stations;
two hundred men were employed
in cutting a path in the rock of
Mongon, and sixty men and an
equal number of mules at Ivica.
The tents were blown down by a
dreadful wind from the north; but
at last, on the 7th of December, all
the reflectors and signals were
placed. M. Arago is indefati-
gable.

Thus the sciences have suffer-
ed nothing by the war. The roy-
al society of London requested,
through the medium of the French
institute, the liberty of a British

 image pending 373

astronomer, who was a prisoner in
France, which was instantly grant-
ed; and this is the second time
that the sciences have been thus
privileged. On the 11th of
March, 1806, the council of state
decided on giving captain Flin-
ders his liberty, and on restoring
his galley, the Cumberland.

63. The magnificent mansion of
Hafod, in Cardiganshire (Wales),
the residence of Thomas Johnes,
Esq., and the theme of rapturous
delight to every traveller in that
part of the principality, was burnt
to the ground on the morning of
the 18th of March, and originated,
it is supposed, in the apartments
of the female servants. At a
quarter after three, Mrs. Johnes
was awakened by the fire, and im-
mediately alarmed the family. So
rapid was the progress of the
flames, that some of the domestics
were with great difficulty rescued.
The housekeeper was in the most
imminent danger of perishing, be-
fore assistance could be rendered;
and two or three other servants,
who had made their way to the
top of the house, were much
scorched before they could be re-
lieved by means of ropes, and con-
veyed to a place of safety. Scarce-
ly covered, Mrs. Johnes and her
daughter, after saving some few
articles from the wreck, took
shelter at the Devil's-bridge, four
miles distant. Mr. Hanbury Will-
iams, of Colebrook dale, Shrop-
shire, brother-in-law to Mr. Johnes,
who was on a visit at Hafod, and a
few of the men servants, by won-
derful exertions, at the hazard of
their lives, succeeded in saving
most of the valuable plate, china,
and a quantity of inferior furni-
ture; the wine, the linen, Mrs.
Johnes' apparel, trinkets, &c., and
the principal furniture, magnifi-

cent glasses, &c., were all lost. Mr.
Williams also sustained a con-
siderable loss, not being able to
save his travelling equipage,
bills, cash, and other valuables.
Many of the splendid books in the
lower part of the library were
saved; but all the precious lore
that was deposited in the gallery
of the anti-library fell a prey to
the flames, among which were the
greatest curiosities: the Welch
MSS., and the labours of Mr.
Johnes for the last forty years; an
irreparable loss to society and the
munificent owner. It is feared
that the valuable Froissarts are to
be included in the loss; but the
copies of that work, which, with
so much credit to Mr. J. and his
assistants in typography, have
issued from the Hafod press, will
immortalize the translator and the
printer. The fire commenced, as
before stated, at three o'clock, and
at six (excepting the three tur-
rets at the corner of the mansion
and the conservatory) only the
bare walls remained, a melancholy
memento of the former splendour
of the place. The house, library,
&c., were valued at 140,000l. and
were insured at about half that
sum in the British and imperial
fire offices; and those honourable
bodies, immediately on hearing of
the accident, dispatched their sur-
veyor to settle the claims under
the policies. Fortunately no lives
were lost, nor persons injured.

64. The Lansdown library of
manuscripts has been purchased
by parliament for the British mu-
seum, at an average of the valua-
tion made by three parties, being
4925l. Mr. Planta, the principal
librarian of the museum, estima-
ted their value in the following
manner:



 image pending 374

               
Burleigh and Cecil papers,
120 lots, at 10l.  
£
1,200  
Sir Julius Cæsar's papers,
50 vols., at 10l.  
500 
27 volumes of original Re-
gisters of Abbeys, at 10l.  
270 
150 volumes, at 5l.   750 
985 ditto, at 2l.   1970 
40 numbers of royal let-
ters, at 5l.  
200 
8 vols. of Chinese drawings  80 
£4970 

The petty papers, amounting to
fifteen volumes, were reserved by
the family.

65. The number of persons
who visited the British museum
in 1805, was 11,939; in 1806,
11,824; and from January to
June, 1807, 6815.

66. At the first meeting of the
board of agriculture this sessions,
the two gold medals were deliver-
ed by the president to the bishop of
Landaff and Asaph and Mr. Cur-
wen; to the former for his exten-
sive plantations in Westmoreland,
and to the latter for a memoir on
the best mode of feeding horses
on potatoes and other green food.

67. Statement of the quantity of
porter brewed in London, by the
twelve principal houses:

                       
Meux  170,879 
Barclay  166,600 
Hanbury  135,972 
Brown & Parry  125,654 
Whitbread  104,251 
F. Calvert  83,004 
Combe  80,273 
Goodwyn  72,580 
Elliott  47,388 
Clowes  38,554 
J. Calvert  37,033 
Harford  33,283 

The quantity of table-beer
brewed by the first twelve houses
in London from July 5, 1806, to
July 5, 1807:



                       
Kirkman  23,354 
Charrington  22,184 
Edmonds  19,474 
Sawford  15,818 
Paullaine  15,300 
Satchell  11,665 
Cowell  11,515 
Cape  11,463 
Sandall  9,798 
Hale  9,098 
Stretton  8,161 
Eves  8,042 

68. The seven warehouses, with
their counting houses, on the
west side of the new exchange,
Liverpool, were recently let, by
public auction, for a term of seven
years, at the following prices per
annum:

             
No. 1.  34  feet by  54,  £360 
2,  21  54,  235 
3,  21  54,  225 
4,  21  54,  210 
5,  23  54,  260 
6,  17  16,  85 
7,  19  32,  160 

69. The munificent prize of five
hundred pounds, which was dur-
ing the last year proposed to the
members of Oxford university by
the Rev. Claudius Buchanan,
D. D., vice provost of the college of
Fort William in Bengal, for the
best composition in English prose,
on several subjects relating to the
propagation of christianity in the
east, was, on the 4th of June, ad-
judged to the Rev. Hugh Pearson,
M. A., of St. John's college.

70. It is a curious fact that the
Romans, during their residence in
Britain, established a manufactory
of woollen cloth at Winchester,
which was so extensive as to sup-
ply their army; and there is rea-
son to believe that the trade which
they introduced into Britain was
not neglected by the native inha-
bitants, for the first nine hundred
years of the christian era. The

 image pending 375

long Spanish wool was imported
into this country so early as the
twelfth century, and we find that
since the days of Edward III
British fleeces were admirably
adapted to the kind of cloth which
was in greatest request, though
now they are generally unequal
to the production of that which is
sought after.

71. In the year 1770, there
was only one stage-coach to Lon-
don, and one to Liverpool, which
went from or came into Manches-
ter, and they set out only twice a
week. There are now twenty-
seven distinct coaches which run
from Manchester, of which eigh-
teen set out every day, and eight
others three times a week, to their
different places of destination. In
the year 1754, a flying coach was
advertised, and it promised in the
following words, that, “however
incredible it might appear, it
would actually arrive in London
in four days and a half after
leaving Manchester.” The dis-
tance is one hundred and eighty-
five miles, and the journey is now
performed by the mail-coaches in
about thirty hours, and on some
occasions it has been travelled in
twenty hours.

72. The Rotherhithe and Croy-
don canal, which was begun about
five years ago, is now nearly finish-
ed. It commences at the town
of Croydon, passes over Penge
common, crosses the road leading
from London to Sydenham, close
to that town, where a bridge over
the canal has been erected some
time. It then runs along the
east side of Sydenham common,
Forest Hill, and Nunhead, until it
crosses the Deptford road, near
the New Cross turnpike, on the
London side. Within the last
three months a commodious

bridge has been erected over the
canal on this part of the road.
From this, down to Rotherhithe,
the canal has long since been cut,
and scarcely any thing is now
wanting to set it working but the
completion of the towing paths.
To obviate the difficulty of ob-
taining water, along the elevated
grounds over which the canal
passes, between Sydenham and
New Cross, several large reser-
voirs have been formed. The
chief of these is on Sydenham
common, where it has more the
appearance of a large lake than
a pond. It is an excavation of an
oblong form, occupying upwards
of thirty acres, and is several feet
above the level of the canal, from
which it is about fifty yards dis-
tant, and into which the water
can be conveyed through sluices
whenever it is required. Such is
the descent near the Deptford
road, notwithstanding the great
depth to which the cut was made,
that within the space of a quarter
of a mile there are no less than
nine or ten gates, at each of which
there are reservoirs to catch the
rain, and collateral cuts near the
bottom to receive the springs.
This canal will considerably facili-
tate the communication between
the metropolis and the counties of
Surrey and Kent.

73. The emperor of Russia has
granted a remarkable charter to
the colony of Scotsmen, who have
been settled in the mountains of
Caucasus for the last four years.
The rights and privileges accord-
ed to these people, who form a
detached settlement in a district
so thinly peopled, and bordering
on the territories of so many un-
civilized tribes of Mahometans
and heathens, are intended to in-
crease their activity in extending

 image pending 376

trade and manufactures, and to
place them, in respect to their im-
munities, on the same footing
with the evangelical society of
Sarepta. They are to have the
additional allotments of land as
near as possible to the village
which they have already founded.
Of these his majesty secures to
them the perpetual possession,
promising that no part of the
tract allotted to their community
shall ever pass by sale, mortgage,
bill of emption, or any other pre-
tence, into the occupation of stran-
gers. They are exempted from
all imposts or burthens for thirty
years; at the end of which period
they, instead of the poll tax, are to
pay fifteen copechs of rent for
each acre of arable land, and to
pay their proportion of the land
tax, and to remain exempt from
all other imposts, from the civil
and military service of the state,
and from the billeting of soldiers
in any of their villages. The
free exercise of their religion is
confirmed to them, and the inter-
nal affairs and police of their set-
tlement shall for ever be adminis-
tered by a magistrate chosen
from among themselves. His
passport will be a sufficient au-
thority for them to travel and
traffic in every part of the empire,
but not for leaving the country.
The chief magistrate is not, with-
out special permission, to admit
to the privileges of a colonist any
Russian subject, but is at liberty
to receive as settlers, Kabardans,
Circassians, and every other de-
scription of Mahometans and
heathens, being free people, and
taking the oath of allegiance to
his majesty. These may also be-
come converts to the religion of
the colony. The colonists may
also buy and keep Kabardan, Cir-

cassian, and other Mahometan and
heathenish slaves. They may
freely exercise every sort of trade,
art, or manufacture, and, within
their own limits, distil and vend
spiritous liquors. The colony
is placed under the special protec-
tion of the civil government of
Caucasus.

74. It is asserted in a German
journal that there are beavers in
Westphalia, on the banks of the
Lippe, and that they continue
there in spite of the endeavours of
the inhabitants to destroy them.
This appears, it is said, very evi-
dently from the great number of
trees which are fallen on the river
sides. The question arising from
this fact, if admitted, is, whether
these beavers live in societies, in
pairs, or solitary?

75. Messrs. Descostils and
Hassenfratz have found, from re-
peated trials, that the mineral
commonly termed spathic iron is
extremely variable in its degree
of fusibility, and that it produces
a metal of very different qualities.
M. Descostils is of opinion, that
the difficult fusibility of some
specimens proceeds from the
magnesia which enters into their
composition, since all the infusi-
ble kinds of spathic iron he had
analysed contained this earth;
and even when he added a portion
of it to fusible specimens, it had
the effect of depriving them of
this quality. Hence, he explains
the effect of exposure to air and
humidity in facilitating the fu-
sion of these minerals, from sul-
phuric acid being formed by the
decomposition of pyrites, and dis-
solving the magnesia. M. Has-
senfratz, on the contrary, rejects
this theory, and contends that he
has examined several kinds of in-
fusible spathic iron which con-

 image pending 377

tained no magnesia in their com-
position; and he explains the ac-
tion of air and moisture, from
their destroying the cohesion of
the mineral. We promise our
readers an early account of the
experiments undertaken by these
two ingenious chemists, in order
to decide this important metal-
lurgic question.

76. Coal is actually worked
in forty-seven departments of
France, and indications of its
existence have been traced in
sixteen others. The yearly pro-
duce from the mines of thirty-
four departments has been esti-
mated at 77,600,000 quintals.
More than 60,000 individuals
earn their subsistence at the
French collieries.

77. It is well known that va-
rious substances diffuse, under
different circumstances, a phos-
phoric light, more or less vivid and
permanent. Such are the fluate of
lime, and some kinds of phosphat
of lime, when thrown in pow-
der on heated bodies. The Bo-
logna phosphorus, after being
exposed to light, emits it again
in the dark. Some sulphurets
of zinc, when strongly rubbed
with hard bodies, rotten wood,
certain fishes, and other animal
substances, when in a state of
putrescence, display also similar
phenomena. The physical and
mathematical class of the French
National Institute has proposed
as the subject of a prize, to be
adjudged on the first Monday of
January, 1809, the following
question: “To ascertain, by ex-
periments, the relations which
subsist between the differen
modes of phosphorescence, and
the cause to which each species
is owing, excluding from exami-
nation the phenomena of this

kind which are observed in living
animals.” The prize is a gold
medal of the value of three thou-
sand francs. The memoirs must
be transmitted to the secretary of
the institute, previous to the first
of October, 1808. The same
class had proposed at its last pub-
lic sitting but one, as the subject
of a prize to be adjudged on the
26th of June, 1807, the follow-
ing question: “To determine,
by anatomical and chemical ex-
periments and observations, what
are the phenomena attendant on
the torpor which certain animals,
such as marmots, dormice, &c.,
undergo during winter, with res-
pect to the circulation of the
blood, respiration, and irritability,
and to ascertain what are the
causes of this sleep, and why it
is peculiar to these animals?”
The memoirs ought to have been
sent to the secretary of the insti-
tute before the 21st of March,
1807; but as the change of the
period of its public sittings does
not permit the class to adjudge
the prize till the month of Janu-
ary, 1808, it extends the term
during which essays can be re-
ceived till October 1, 1807.

78. M. Sage, a member of the
institute, gives the following cu-
rious account of the soporific
effects produced by the exhala-
tions of saffron. This plant, it
would appear, is cultivated in
great abundance in Gatinais, one
of the former provinces of France,
and is gathered during the au-
tumn. The farmers, after care-
fully collecting the flowers, spread
them on linen cloths, in their
dwelling-houses. In the evening
the females are employed in
picking off the pistils, the odour
of which produces the most
alarming effects on the nervous

 image pending 378

system. The disease induced
in this way is termed by the in-
habitants the soporific fever, and
with which they are never affect-
ed but during the saffron harvest,
which usually lasts one month.
The narcotic effect of this odor-
ous emanation greatly resembles
that produced by opium; it is ca-
pable of occasioning death, espe-
cially in feeble patients and chil-
dren. Like the affection produced
by opium, it is most effectually
combated by the employment of
vinegar, of which the following
facts afford a confirmation: ma-
dame G———, being in the Gati-
nais, saw a child laid out for dead,
but who, in fact, was only affect-
ed with that species of torpor
produced by the odour of saffron
flowers. She happily succeeded
in recalling the infant to life, by
means of vinegar, gooseberry wa-
ter, and the employment of fric-
tion with flannel dipped in a little
vinegar. Sage himself once suc-
ceeded in relieving a person from
a similar comatose state, who
had been affected by remaining
a long time in a garden abound-
ing with poppies. He also relates
the following remarkable cir-
cumstance which occurred in his
residence on the fourth of the
present month: about half past
one o'clock in the afternoon, the
thunder was attracted by the
paratonnerre, or conductor, erect-
ed on the top of his study, at the
Hotel de la Monnaie. On hearing
a violent and rumbling noise, but
very different from that produced
by a thunder-clap, he observed
to the person who was with him,
“The thunder approaches us.”
At the same moment, a woman
who was standing near the chim-
ney, in the kitchen adjoining his
apartment, was terrified by the

appearance of an extremely vivid
light filling the whole funnel of
the chimney, which is only ten
or twelve feet distant from the
paratonnerre. This kitchen is only
lighted from the top roof, by four
squares of glass. At the same
instant, a violent shock was per-
ceived, not only in M. Sage's
study, but also in the kitchen.
The rapid succession of the noise
and flashes of lightning excited
in his mind an apprehension
lest the paratonnerre might in
some respect be defective; on
examination, however, its bars
were found to be in a perfect
state, as well as the conductor,
which terminates in a well.
From these circumstances M.
Sage concludes that the paraton-
nerre
must have been insufficient
to carry off all the electric fluid,
and had allowed a part of it to
escape. It is much to be wished
that similar observations could
be obtained on this subject, as
they would most probably enable
us to ascertain whether several
paratonnerres may not be neces-
sary on the same building, or
whether some method might not
be discovered to improve and
render them more perfect.

79. The quality of iron, it is
well known, differs very materi-
ally, according to the mines
whence it is drawn, and the
forges wherein it is prepared.
M. Vauquelin has lately under-
taken a series of interesting and
important experiments, in order
to discover the causes of this dif-
ference. With this view, he not
only analyzed the ores and the
melted metal, but also the fluxes
which are added to it, and the
scoriæ or other refuse separated
from it. In consequence of this
examination, he discovered in the

 image pending 379

slimy iron ore of Burgundy and
of Franche-comté, besides the
oxide of iron, silica, alumine,
lime, oxide of manganese, mag-
nesia, and chromic acid. M.
Vauquelin ascribes the bad qua-
lity of certain kinds of iron to
some remaining mixture of the
chrome, phosphorus, and mag-
nesia; and he hence observes,
that it should be the first care of
refiners to free this metal from
such injurious substances. Be-
sides these valuable practical re-
marks, this ingenious chemist,
from finding that the composi-
tion of this mineral, but more
especially of the sublimed mat-
ter adhering to the furnaces,
greatly resembles that of atmos-
pheric stones, has taken occasion
to suggest a new and plausible
theory of this surprising pheno-
menon. The only difference
between the sublimed matter and
these stones consists in nickel
being found in the latter. As a
considerable portion of this sub-
limed matter does not adhere to
the furnace, but is carried to a
great height in the atmosphere,
M. Vauquelin conceives it possi-
ble, that it may concur towards
the formation of aërolites. The
only difficulty attending this ex-
planation seems to be, how these
sublimed metals could enter into
combination in the atmosphere,
so as to form such large masses
as several of the stones in ques-
tion.

80. A journal, called the True
Hollander, is published at the
Hague in the French language,
which gives an account of the pol-
itics, literature, science, and the
fine arts of Holland. This journal,
from the circumstance of its be-
ing in French, is rendered much
more interesting, because more

accessible, than if it were written
in the Dutch language.

81. At Castiglione, in the king-
dom of Etruria, there is a lake of
about two leagues in diameter,
which communicates with the
sea, and produces great quanti-
ties of salt. The reservoir con-
tains 4,859,000 cubic feet of wa-
ter, which, after evaporation,
leaves 11,000,000 pounds of salt.

82. According to a recent cen-
sus of the population of Rome, the
number of inhabitants is dimi-
nished in a very striking degree;
it is at present only 134,973 per-
sons of every age and condition.
It was in 1788 upwards of
165,000, and in 1794 it was more
than 167,000. The principal di-
minution appears to have been
first perceived in 1798, in which
year the number of inhabitants
was 151,000.

83. The Museum Borgianum at
Rome is now become one of the
most considerable which remain
at this time in that city. It was
founded by the uncle of the late
cardinal Borgia, who died at Ly-
ons in 1804, and contains, among
a great number of curious arti-
cles, a manuscript of the second
century on a roll of Egyptian pa-
pyrus, which has been described
by Schon; an inscription in the
Volscian language, the only one
remaining in the dialect of that
people; twelve Etruscan vases,
anciently used in sacrifices: these
have been engraved and publish-
ed under the cardinal's direction;
upwards of 5000 Greek coins;
more than a thousand Cufic coins,
the most remarkable of which
have been described by Adler;
an Arabic globe, described by As-
seman; several manuscripts in
the Arabic and Syriac languages,
&c., &c. As secretary to the so-

 image pending 380

ciety of the Propaganda, cardinal
Borgia increased in the printing-
office of that institution, often at
his own expence, the number of
founts of types of foreign lan-
guages. Among others he gave
a fount of Etruscan types, and
encouraged Raphael Turki, the
Egyptian bishop, to print his Cop-
tic Grammar, and also promoted
that of the language spoken by
the Curds, of which Garzoni was
the author.

84. There are upwards of two
hundred warm springs in Portu-
gal, and it deserves to be particu-
larly remarked, that the greater
number and the hottest of them
issue from granite.

85. On the little river Prisco
(Portugal), a lead mine was disco-
vered in 1740; but though the ore
yields 92 per cent., and the vein is
very large, it has never been
worked with permanent advan-
tage, owing to the injudicious in-
terference of government. A
colliery at Capo de Buarcos will
probably be lost to the public
from bad management and neg-
lect, some of the works being al-
ready under water.

86. There is only one iron-foun-
dery in Portugal, which is under
the direction of Antonio Braga,
who has introduced some import-
ant improvements in the process
of converting the ore into metal.
M. Braga also discovered plum-
bago at Ventizello; but he was
enjoined by that suspicious go-
vernment to desist from his re-
searches.

87. The total population of the
island of Trinidad amounted, in
1797 (the time the English took
possession of it), to 17,718 per-
sons, of which number 2,151
were white people, English, Spa-
nish, and French; 4,476 were mu-

lattoes, or people of colour of dif-
ferent countries, French, Spanish,
&c.; 10,009 slaves, and 1,082 In-
dians. The proportion of whites
was English, 610; Spanish, 505;
French, 1,036. In the year 1801,
the population had increased to
24,239, and in 1802 it was 28,477,
of whom 2,261 were white peo-
ple, 5,275 free coloured people,
19,709 slaves, and 1,232 Indians.

88. In the island of Cuba, nei-
ther wheat, olives, nor vines are
grown. Every article of clothing
is brought from Europe, there
not being a single manufactory of
any kind in it. In 1792, there
were exported to Spain 30,000
cwt. of tobacco, besides that con-
sumed in the country and in
America. The export of wax
that year amounted to 50,000 cwt.
Bees have only been introduced
into Cuba since the year 1764.
After the peace of Versailles,
when Florida was ceded to the
English, some families came over
from St. Augustine, and brought
some hives with them, and in a
short time they encreased so
much that the sugar plantations
became endangered. In this is-
land there are six hundred sugar
mills, from which more than
500,000 cwt. of sugar was export-
ed to Europe. There is not
one navigable river in Cuba,
but only small rivulets and
streams; there are one hundred
and forty-eight lakes which con-
tain fish, and there is abundance
of turtle on the coast.

89. Respecting the new mea-
surement of a degree in Lapland,
when it was thought requisite to
ascertain the cause of the error,
which appeared to have been
committed in 1736, M. de Lalande
endeavoured, from his long expe-
rience, to point out the way that

 image pending 381

might lead to the desired expla-
nation. He has suggested, that,
at this period, they were wholly
ignorant of the use of the proof-
telescope. This instrument is so
convenient and simple, that we
might be induced to believe its
invention to be nearly of the same
date as the application of sights
to sextants and quadrants; it is
however more modern than might
be supposed, and is generally em-
ployed without our inquiring, as
is too often the case, to whom we
are indebted for the discovery.
It is mentioned for the first time
in de Lalande's Astronomy, edi-
tion of 1764. In order to verify
the parallelism of telescopes,
Bouguer recommends the em-
ployment of two sights, which
ought to be made reciprocally to
change places, with the view of
ascertaining if they are of the
same height. He himself em-
ployed a much more imperfect
method, and one which could still
less bear a comparison with the
proof-telescope of M. de Lalande,
which is now universally adopted.
M. Delambre professes himself
ignorant, whether Graham might
not employ similar means to ve-
rify his sextant; Maupertuis
makes no mention of it in the
chapter in which he treats of the
verification of this instrument,
and from this negligence may be
partly explained the error imput-
ed to him.

This measurement of a degree
in Lapland has furnished M. de
Lalande with the subject of a se-
cond memoir, in which he de-
monstrates the necessity of at-
tending to the level in taking ob-
servations at a great distance.

90. The eclipse of the 16th of
June, 1806, created great interest
among the astronomers of Paris;

it was, however, one of the senior
members of the class, M. Mes-
sier, who alone succeeded in ob-
serving it. The clouds parted for
a moment, and permitted him to
view its commencement, which
he observed at 4h. 52′ 43′′. He
was also enabled to measure three
phases, for the accuracy of which,
however, he does not pledge him-
self.

The atmospheric variations,
which prevented us observing the
eclipse, likewise proved unfavour-
able to the observation of the sol-
stice; but as this could be supplied
by the observations of the preced-
ing and following days, a sufficient
number of observations has been
collected to confirm those made
during the last ten years.

91. M. Bouvard has discovered
two comets, and calculated their
elements. The same calculations
have been made by Biot and Ara-
go, according to the method of
Laplace. M. Legendre failed not
to embrace this opportunity of
verifying the formulæ which he
published last year. We then
observed, that there are few me-
thods which might not prove in-
convenient, and somewhat inac-
curate, under certain circum-
stances. This has in fact been
the case in the present instance.
But M. Legendre has found in his
analyses sufficient resources to
obviate the difficulty, which had
not been foreseen in his first me-
moir, and to simplify the general
solution that he had given of the
problem.

92. The first astronomers who
measured the earth with any de-
gree of accuracy considered it as
a sphere, of which the radius is
of an immense magnitude, in
comparison with the small inter-
vals which they proposed to esti-

 image pending 382

mate. The longest side of the
triangle which entered into these
operations did not exceed 60,000
metres, and the difference of a si-
milar arc to the right line joining
its extremities was scarcely two
decimetres, or one three hundred
millionth part. It was believed
then, with some reason, that we
might consider as right lines the
triangles of which the curve was
so little evident.

In the latter operations, when
the object was to determine more
exactly the difference between our
globe and a perfect sphere, they
carried their attention much far-
ther. The triangles formed on
the surface of the earth were con-
sidered as very small portions of
a sphere which, throughout the
extent of each triangle, was sen-
sibly confounded with the sphe-
roid. Does this supposition, which
is more accurate than the former,
admit of all the precision that
might be expected? and since it
is a spheroid which is to be mea-
sured, wherefore have not the tri-
angles been estimated as if they
were spheroidical? This ques-
tion, says M. Delambre, is so na-
tural, that it must have presented
itself at once to the astronomers
employed in this operation, and
to the numerous literati through-
out Europe, who examined and
judged respecting the merit of
their labours. In the first meet-
ing of the commission, a learned
foreigner, M. Tralles, remarked
that the bases of Melun and Per-
pignan could not be simply con-
sidered as arcs which were en-
tirely in the same plane, but as
curves with a double curvature.
The same remark had been made
by Clairant more than fifty years
ago, but it was always believed,
that the effect of the double curve

could only become sensible when
the intervals were much greater
than those given by direct mea-
surement, and it was hence con-
cluded, that the consideration of
the spheroid would only render
more intricate, calculations al-
ready too complicated, without
being of the smallest utility. In
fact, the spheroid is not much
less different from the sphere,
than the sphere itself is from a
plane. Now the sphericity of
triangles only introduces into the
calculation terms of the second
order for the angles, and of the
third order for the sides. It was
therefore natural to suppose that
the terms dependent on the sphe-
roid should be of a higher order,
and still more insensible by their
extreme minuteness. But though
no person had yet written on this
subject, we ought not to conclude
that they have remained content-
ed with vague considerations, and
a simple probability.

93. There was scarcely 1/500 of
difference between the co-efficient
of M. Laplace, in his calculation
of the height of mountains by the
barometer, and that which M.
Raymond deduced from nume-
rous observations of this kind,
which he made in the Pyrennees.
Some recent experiments have
entirely done away a difference,
which could only proceed from
the uncertainty either of the baro-
metrical observations, or of the
former experiments on the weight
of the air and mercury, which M.
Laplace had assumed in his cal-
culation. M. Biot has lately re-
peated these experiments with
such minute attention to all the
particulars, that he finds the co-
efficient ought to be diminished
nearly 1/500, so that the agreement
between the two methods is com-

 image pending 383

plete. On the one hand, we be-
hold the geometrician relying
on facts observed in the cabinet,
and deducing from them a for-
mula for measuring the height of
mountains; and on the other, an
observer taking for a basis the
known height of a mountain,
and the effect it produces on the
elevation of the mercury in the
barometer, and inferring from it
the relative weight of the mercu-
ry and the air, and finding the
same quantity which had served
for the foundation of the calcula-
tions of the geometrician. These
comparisons, which are daily mul-
tiplied, in the application of the
analysis; these identical results,
obtained from such contrary pro-
cesses, and drawn from such dif-
ferent phenomena, afford proofs
to which the most obstinate and
sceptical must yield their assent.

This important result is not,
however, the only merit of this
memoir of M. Raymond; in it
will be found the means of dis-
tinguishing the circumstances
which are favourable or unfavour-
able to these kind of observations.
The author arranges them under
three different heads: the influ-
ence of time, of stations, and of
meteors. With respect to the first
of these, the heights taken in the
morning and evening are always
too small; from whence it fol-
lows, that they should be made
towards the middle of the day, a
condition which is easily fulfilled.
The influence of stations is
equally real, but not so easily re-
medied. In all cases, however,
the portable barometer and the
barometer of comparison ought
to be observed in stations where
the local circumstances are the
same. Great distance does not
always prove an obstacle: for ex-

ample, M. Raymond has remark-
ed, that his observations in the
Pyrennees, compared with those
made by M. Bouvard in the im-
perial observatory, afford nearly
similar results, while the same
observations of M. Bouvard, com-
pared with those of M. Raymond,
made at Marli-la-ville, indicate
from one day to another differ-
ences from ten to eleven metres
in the relative height of the two
stations; from which we may
conclude, that the use of the ba-
rometer, for measuring heights
at a short distance, is not so cer-
tain as when the two stations are
at a greater distance from each
other. The influence of meteors
always tends to diminish the ap-
parent height, and observations
made during a storm are never
to be depended on. From all
these considerations it follows,
that, in order to obtain the exact
height of a mountain, it is not suf-
ficient to take indifferently a me-
dium between observations made
at different times and in different
seasons, as such a proceeding
would evidently expose us to er-
ror.

94. The facility with which we
distinguish objects does not de-
pend solely on the intensity of the
light by which they are viewed,
but likewise upon the shades: if
they are simple and well-defined,
the vision is distinct; but, on the
contrary, if the light arrive from
several sides at once, there will be
several shades which confound and
enfeeble the light, so that we see
indistinctly, however great may be
its brilliancy. A proper distribu-
tion of light is therefore not only
important in point of economy, but
also for the preservation of the eyes.

The direct rays of a lamp from
a double current of air fatigues the

 image pending 384

eye, and count Rumford proposes,
with a view of remedying this incon-
venience, the adoption of different
kinds of screens, and the employ-
ment of ground glass globes.
What renders the use of these
globes less common is the preva-
lent opinion that, in this way, a
great portion of the light is lost.
No person has hitherto, at least in
France, endeavoured to remove
this prejudice. Count Rumford,
however, demonstrates by an ex-
periment, simple and easy to be
repeated, that the loss is absolutely
trifling. The surface of the
ground glass being full of furrows
and asperities, presents to the
light numerous smooth planes dif-
ferently inclined, which disperse
the light, render it milder, and
distribute it in such a manner that
it falls more uniformly on every
part of the object we wish to en-
lighten.

This advantage is not the only
one derived from the employment
of ground glass. According to
count Rumford, by its substitution
for polished glass in our windows
the light would be more equally
diffused in all the apartments,
from the top to the bottom of the
building. This would prove par-
ticularly useful in large cities,
where the narrowness of the
streets, and the height of the
houses, prevent the light from en-
tering, except in an oblique direc-
tion.

Count Rumford gives us the
description of a lamp, which is so
constructed that we do not per-
ceive any direct rays, while it
sheds a mild and equal light over
every part of a large hall, without
leaving any of it in shade, though
the reservoir containing the oil be
circular, and the cylinders which

disperse the light be placed in the
centre.

95. Among the inventions ap-
proved by the National Institute
are a spinning-wheel by M. Belle-
mére, by which the labour per-
formed in a given time on an or-
dinary wheel may be doubled; a
loom for brocades and ornamental
stuffs, which, from the simplicity
of its mechanism, has been deemed
proper for a model, and the inven-
tor has received a suitable reward
from the government; a stocking
frame, of which the advantages are
pointed out with so much perspi-
cuity and distinctness, that the
class has ordered the report of the
commission to be printed, in order
to serve as a history of the art;
and, in fine, another stocking-
frame, by M. Favreau Bouillon,
who has reduced all the labour
to the simple balancing of two
levers: this loom may be
wrought by a very feeble man,
or even by one who has only
the use of a single arm. Among
the numerous inventions, those
only are enumerated which have
a direct application to the com-
mon arts and purposes of life.

96. Astronomers are now in
possession of tables of the sun, in
which, for the first time, the at-
traction of all the planets are taken
into account.

97. Lagrange has prepared a
complete edition of his Calcul de
Fonctions,
a truly classical work.
A supplement is published by M.
Laplace, to his Mecanique Celeste,
in which he gives a complete
theory of capillary attraction. For
the first time we see these phe-
nomena, apparently so contrary,
reduced to the same law; the as-
cension and depression between
two planes explained by the same

 image pending 385

analysis, which accounts for the
analogous phenomena observed in
tubes; the numerous results of
this theory are perfectly identical
with those of the earliest and most
accurate observations, as well as
with those of Haüy and Tre-
mery, recently made for the ex-
press purpose of submitting this
new theory to the most rigorous
proof.

It would be an error to suppose
that these intricate researches had
no other object but that of over-
coming a difficulty. Throughout
all nature, as well as in physical
science, a universal dependence
prevails; there is no phenomenon,
which, on being properly under-
stood, does not throw light on some
other. Thus, for example, the
theory in question has already de-
termined a very important point
in meteorology. A variety of
opinions formerly prevailed, res-
pecting the mode of estimating
the height of the mercury in the
barometer. While some reckon-
ed from the base, others calculat-
ed from the summit of the con-
vexity. This last method is much
more accurate, though it still
gives less heights than those
which result from the pressure
of the atmosphere, a difference
which is produced by capillary ac-
tion. The author points out two
methods of correcting this inaccu-
racy. The one is analytical, and
the other, which will doubtless be
preferred by the greater number
of observers, requires only an easy
experiment, and a very simple
calculation. By both of these
methods, results more readily
comparable may be obtained.

98. Among the botanical works
published during the present year,
are the continuation of the Flora

of New Holland, by Billardiere;
the splendid Description of Mal-
maison, by Ventenat; the Flora
of Owarree and Benin, by Beau-
vois; and the Rural Botanist, by
Dumont. Courset, a correspond-
ing member of the academy, and
Lamark have given, conjointly
with Decandolle, a third and en-
larged edition of the French
Flora.

Billardiere has, in his valuable
work above mentioned, made
known to us six new genera of
plants of New Holland. The
three first are naturally arranged
among the myrtles, which form a
very numerous family in New
Holland, and from which medicine
and the arts may derive much ad-
vantage, as the trees and shrubs be-
longing to it furnish aromatic oils.

The first genus, denominated
pilcanthus, is very remarkable by
an envelope of a single piece in-
closing each flower; the petals
are five in number, and the calyx
is divided into equal segments;
the fruit, which is inferior and
unilocular, contains several seeds.

The second is called calotham-
nus,
from the elegance of its flow-
ers, the numerous stamens of
which stand upon a large filament,
divided into two at each extremi-
ty, while the other are sterile.
The fruit resembles, in every res-
pect, the metrosideros.

The third, called calytrix, is
known by its tabulated calyx,
placed above the germen, and di-
vided into five parts, each of which
is terminated by a long awn or
bristle. The capsule contains only
one seed.

The fourth has received the
name of capnalotus, and belongs
to the family of the rosaceae. The
species termed follicularia is per-

 image pending 386

haps still more remarkable than
the sarracenia and the nepenthes,
by the form of some of the leaves,
which represents very nearly a
purse, surmounted by an opercu-
lum, and bordered with hooks,
directed towards its inner side.

The fifth is named octinotus,
and has all the appearance of a
plant belonging to the corymbiform
tribe, though, in fact, it belongs to
the umbellatae. The two stigmas,
which swell towards the apex, are
surmounted, on the internal side,
by a bristle, resembling the feelers
or antennae of insects, as in the
lagoecia. It contains only one
seed.

The sixth, called prostanthera,
belongs to the labiate tribe. The
calyx is composed of two com-
plete divisions, the largest of
which proceeds towards the other,
and covers it, as soon as the corol
has dropt off. A filiform appen-
dix proceeds from underneath
each of the anthers. The fruit is,
in every respect, similar to that
of the genus prasium; but one
thing very remarkable in this fa-
mily of plants is, that the embryo,
or corcle, is enclosed in a thick
and fleshy albumen, whilst in the
other labiate plants, hitherto ob-
served, it is naked.

M. Beauvois, having investigat-
ed certain mushrooms, in all the
various stages of their growth,
found, that their forms became so
much changed at different periods,
that several botanists had thence
been led to place them in different
genera, according to the age at
which they examined them; thus,
according to this author, the ri-
zomorpha
of Persoon is only a
mushroom in the second stage of
its growth, and becomes a boletus
at the third; the dematrium
bombycinum
of the same author

becomes, at the termination of
some time, his mesenterica ar-
gentes.
It then thickens, ac-
quires a cellular texture, so as to
resemble a morel, and, like the
rizomorpha, at length becomes a
boletus. This plant, however, re-
quires farther investigation.

99. The bones of two species
of bears, at present unknown, are
found buried with those of the
tiger, hyena, and other carnivo-
rous animals, in a great number of
caverns, in the mountains of Hun-
gary and Germany.

Bones of the rhinoceros and
elephant are found in abundance
in every part of our globe.

Elephant's bones have been
dug up in more than six hundred
places of the two continents. Still
more recently have the jaw-bones
and tusks of these animals been
found in the forest of Bondy, in
digging the canal intended to
bring the waters of the river
Ourgue to Paris. The farther
we proceed towards the north,
these bones are found in a still
more perfect state of preservation.
An island, situated in the Frozen
sea, is almost entirely composed of
them. These facts were pre-
viously known; but the results of
a comparison made by M. Cuvier
between these fossil bones of the
rhinoceros and elephant, with those
of the same kind of animals exist-
ing in Africa at the present day,
clearly prove that the former were
of a different species from the
latter.

Exclusive of the different struc-
ture of the muzzle, the fossil
rhinoceros appears to have had
much shorter legs, a larger and
more elongated head than the
rhinoceros now known. The
jaw-bones of the fossil elephant,
as well as the head, and particu-

 image pending 387

larly the alveola of the tusks, ap-
pear also to have been of a differ-
ent structure from the same parts
belonging to the present species;
the proboscis also differs in its
proportions.

On the whole, Cuvier thinks
there is reason to conclude that
these two species are now extinct,
as well as many others whose
bones he has examined, and of
which ten or twelve species, deem-
ed non-descripts by most natura-
lists, have been found with their
bones encrusted in the plaster-
quarries near Paris. There is
reason to suppose that these
species have lived in the places
where their bones are found, and
that they have not been transport-
ed thither by an inundation, as is
generally supposed; since these
bones are not in the least worn down
by friction. We should acquire a
very superficial knowledge of na-
tural bodies, and attain very im-
perfect ideas of the different phe-
nomena they present, if we con-
fined ourselves merely to the de-
scription of their external parts,
and did not endeavour to obtain a
more intimate knowledge of their
structure, by means of anatomy
and chemistry.

100. Attraction and repulsion.
These two powerful agents in
nature have, during the present
year, as we learn from M. Cu-
vier, attracted the attention of
philosophers.

It is well known, that ice is
lighter than water, since it swims
in it. On the other hand, hot
water is, in general, lighter than
that which is cold. But does not
this fluid become uniformly con-
densed, in proportion as it is
cooled, and expand suddenly at
the moment of its congelation?
This, however, is not the case;

for water is at its maximum of
density, when a few degrees
above the freezing-point. This
M. Febvre-Gineau proved by di-
rect experiments, several years
ago, by means of the thermome-
ter and hydrostatical balance.
Since that period, count Rum-
ford has, by well-devised experi-
ments, rendered the facts still
more evident.

101. Berthollet proves that, by
means of pressure, we may com-
bine, with the three alkalies, a
much greater quantity of carbo-
nic acid than usual, and thus form
neutral salts, as well as with the
other acids. He restricts the
use of the term carbonate to these
combinations, while he gives to
those usually formed with this
acid and the alkalies, the name
of sub-carbonates; and shows,
that there are between these two
many intermediate states.

The same holds equally true
in the earthly carbonates, and
many other salts. The phosphate
of soda, for example, is crystal-
lizable, both with an excess of
acid, and an excess of basis. The
partizans of the old doctrines
suppose that, in such cases, no
combination takes place, but that
the superabundant principle re-
mains merely interposd in a free
state, between the molecules of
the two principles, combined in
the usual proportion. Berthollet
alleges, in reply to this opinion,
that, if this were the case, the
sulphuric acid poured on a sub-
carbonate would immediately
seize upon the uncombined alka-
line molecules, previously to en-
tering into union with those com-
bined with the carbonic acid.
Now, that is not the fact; for the
smallest drop of the former acid
instantaneously produces an ef-

 image pending 388

fervescence, and extrication of
the second. The acidulous sul-
phate of soda effloresces on ex-
posure to the air; that is, it parts
with its water of crystallization,
which could not happen were
the sulphuric acid uncombined
with it, since there is no substance
that more greedily attracts the
moisture of the air than this acid.

Berthollet has furnished us
with the means of estimating the
degree of acidity of the different
acids, and the alkalinity of the
different bases, by the quantity
which it is necessary to employ
of each of these substances, com-
pletely to saturate or neutralize
the other, so that no sign of any
superabundant acid or alkali is
perceivable in the combination.

He confirms this method by
showing that the proportion of
these quantities is uniform, and
that if to one basis twice more
of one kind of acid be necessary
to saturate it than to saturate
another basis, the first will also
require twice more of any other
kind of acid than the second.

But the degree of resistance to
heat does not correspond with
this force, and it is more easy,
for example, to decompose by
fire the carbonate of magnesia
than that of lime, though the af-
finity of these two earths for the
acid be nearly equal: the reason
of which is, that the former car-
bonate contains much more wa-
ter; and other experiments show,
that water favours the disengage-
ment of carbonic acid.

The consequences deducible
from these facts, in every branch
of chemistry, and particularly
in the theory of analyses, are in-
calculable.

The tables of the affinities,
and a great part of the analyses

hitherto made, are invalidated by
them, and experience, in fact,
proves that these data require to
be revised. For example, Klap-
roth, and afterwards Vauquelin,
found a fifth of fluoric acid in the
topaz, in which it was never be-
fore suspected to exist. This
stone must, therefore, be now
transferred to the class of sub-
tances containing acids.

Another mineral, hitherto con-
sidered as a stone, is now found
to be a metal. It was formerly
termed by Delamethiere oisanite,
and still more recently by M.
Haüy, anathase. Vauquelin has,
however, found in it nothing but
the oxide of titanium, as in the
other mineral denominated red
schoerl.

This fact may be considered as
important, since chemistry had
not at that time been able to dis-
cover any essential difference in
the composition of these two mi-
nerals, though their physical
qualities and their crystallization
were wholly different.

A similar example had for-
merly occurred in mineralogy.
I here allude to the arragonite, in
which chemistry discovers no-
thing but a carbonate of lime,
though neither in weight, hard-
ness, fracture, nor crystallization,
does it resemble calcareous spar,
or common carbonate of lime.

A different example, but which
establishes also a species of op-
position between the physical
and chemical characters of mi-
nerals, has occurred during the
present year. It is an iron ore,
known under the name of spathic
iron. It uniformly exhibits the
same crystalline appearance as
carbonated lime, and, in like man-
ner, contains a great proportion
of it. M. Haüy had arranged it

 image pending 389

among the varieties of this spe-
cies, considering the oxide of
iron merely as accidentally mix-
ed with it, during the crystalliza-
tion of the lime, nearly in the
same manner as the sand, in the
curious crystals of the hard grey
stone, found in the forest of Fon-
tainbleau.

It had been indeed long known,
that the quantity of iron contain-
ed in it is extremely variable;
but Messrs. Drapier and Desco-
tils have discovered, that the
proportion of lime varies still
more; that very frequently it
scarcely contains any, and that
the magnesia, and the oxide of
manganese, are found in very
different quantities in different
specimens.

Such are the various combina-
tions which occur under the same
form.

These apparent oppositions be-
tween two branches of the same
science, or between two modes of
viewing the same objects, can only
proceed from some imperfection
in the principles of the one or the
other of the two methods, and
merit the attention of men of sci-
ence.

102. The productions of nature
are so intimately connected with,
and so materially modified by, the
climates in which they are found,
that no improvement can be made
in any of the branches of natural
history, without an exact acquaint-
ance with geography. Hence it
appears, that this knowledge is
scarcely less necessary to the na-
turalist than to the astronomer.
It is well known how much we
stand indebted to scientific travel-
lers; and Olivier has furnished us
with new proofs of this truth, in a
topographical account of Persia,
which he has just published.

He describes the chains of the
mountains, the course of the ri-
vers, and explains the nature of
the productions by that of the cli-
mate. By reason of the great
drought which so generally pre-
vails throughout this vast empire,
not above a twentieth part of it is
in a state of cultivation. There
are many provinces in which not
a single tree is to be seen, except
such as have been planted and wa-
tered by the hand of man. This
evil progressively augments, by
the destruction of the canals which
conduct the waters from the moun-
tains; and the lands being desert-
ed become impregnated with salt,
which renders them for ever ste-
rile.

The labours of naturalists who,
instead of exploring foreign coun-
tries, pursue their studies at home,
may also prove useful to the im-
provement of geography, by sug-
gesting lights calculated to assist
the inquiries of travellers.

M. De Lacepede, after examin-
ing what is already known respect-
ing Africa, comparing the size of
the rivers which flow into the sea,
with the extent of the country on
which the rains of the torrid zone
fall, and with the probable quantity
of water carried off by evaporation;
forming, in short, a judgment re-
specting the number and direction
of the mountainous chains in the
interior, by those with which we
are acquainted on the borders of
this great division of the globe;
from all these circumstances he
has been led to conjectures re-
specting the physical disposition
of the unknown regions in the cen-
tre, and particularly in regard to
the inland lakes and seas, which
must, he thinks, exist therein. He
has sketched out the routes which
ought, in his opinion, to be pursued

 image pending 390

by travellers, who intend to explore
these yet undiscovered countries.

There is also another kind of
speculative geography, which en-
deavours to ascertain, from the pre-
sent appearance of countries, their
state in past times.

M. Olivier has investigated, in
this way, the probability of the
communication which was former-
ly supposed to exist between the
Caspian and Black sea. He is of
opinion that this communication
must have been to the north of
Mount Caucasus, and that, at last,
it was interrupted by the alluvial
depositions of the Cuban, the Wol-
ga, and the Don.

Since then, the Caspian, no long-
er receiving any rivers equivalent
to the water carried off by evapo-
ration, has greatly sunk, and is
now, at the present day, sixty feet
below the level of the Euxine.

It is thus that it has been se-
parated from the sea of Aral, and
left exposed the immense plains
of sand which lie to the north and
east.

Dureau de la Malle has dis-
covered, in the Greek and Roman
writers, numerous testimonies of
the former extent of the Caspian
sea, and of its communications
with the Euxine and Aral, and
has collected them in a memoir,
which he has presented to two
classes of the French National
Institute. The ancients ascribed
the separation of the two former,
and the great diminution of the
Euxine itself, to a disruption
of the Bosphorus, which they sup-
posed was the cause of the flood
of Deucalion, the Euxine being
thrown with violence, by this
opening, upon the Archipelago
and the shores of Greece. Some
of them even imagined, that, at
this epoch, the Mediterranean, in

consequence of being suddenly
augmented by the same cause, had
broken down the pillars of Hercu-
les, and formed the strait which
now unites it with the ocean.

But Olivier conceives that, if
the Euxine had ever been more
elevated than at present, it must
have found a natural outlet by the
plain of Nicea, and by other val-
lies which lead to the Propontis
and the Archipelago; that, in any
other case, the narrow channel of
the Bosphorus could not furnish
sufficient water to inundate the
lofty mountains of Greece, which
are more elevated than any other
on the borders of the Euxine; and
still less to produce any percepti-
ble effect upon the vast expanse
of the Mediterranean.

He is therefore of opinion, that
the relations of the ancients on
this subject originated neither
from observation nor tradition,
but merely in conjectures, which
the physical state of the countries
entirely overthrows. It is equally
true, that the part of the Bospho-
rus nearest to the Euxine sea
exhibits traces of volcanic revolu-
tions, while the remaining part
forms a natural valley. This holds
equally true with regard to the
Hellespont.

103. The English fire insurance
companies calculate on an alarm
of fire every day, and about eight
serious fires in every quarter of a
year. From Michaelmas, 1805,
to Michaelmas, 1806, the diffe-
rent fire-offices in London expe-
rienced three hundred and six
alarms of fire attended with lit-
tle damage, thirty-one serious
fires, and one hundred and fifty-
five alarms, occasioned by chim-
neys being on fire, amounting in
all to four hundred and ninety-
two accidents.



 image pending 391

104. The watch-trade has been
doubled in Europe within the last
fifty years. It increases with the
progress of civilization, which
renders the instrument which
shows and divides time nearly as
valuable as time itself. One of
the French commercial agents in
the Levant has recently given
the following particulars of the
sale of English watches in Tur-
key, before the late disputes be-
tween the two countries. Eng-
land used to sell annually thirty
dozen watches at Salonica, as
many in the Morea, three hun-
dred dozen at Constantinople,
four hundred dozen at Smyrna,
one hundred and fifty dozen in
Syria, and two hundred and fifty
dozen in Egypt. Nineteen out of
twenty were silver watches; the
gold ones not being so easily sold.
The average amount of the whole
English watch-trade in Turkey
was valued at 110,000l. sterling,
annually.

105. The emperor Justinian's
Charta Plenariae Securitatis is one
of the most ancient instruments
written on Egyptian paper, and
as such deposited in the library of
the late king of France, and is
published by Mabillon in his
work, De Re Diplomaticâ. St.
Augustine's Epistles, and part of
Josephus's Antiquities, in Latin,
of the sixth century, were in the
Benedictine library at Paris, at the
commencement of the French re-
volution, all written on this kind
of paper. The use of Egyptian
paper seems to have been laid
aside in the ninth or at the begin-
ning of the tenth century, when
silk paper was introduced, as more
convenient and lasting than the
weed that grew on the banks of
the Nile. As to the paper in use

at this day, Petrus Moritius, sur-
named Venerabilis, who lived in
the twelfth century, calls Charta
é rasuris veterum panorum facta,

a kind of paper made of the lint
of old rag; it seems to have been
invented in the eleventh century.
The exact time, however, of the
invention of our modern paper
cannot be ascertained. Rembold,
in his Dissertation on Paper,
printed at Berlin in 1774, fixes
the time of its invention in 1704,
but upon very slender grounds.
Mabillon met with a manuscript
on modern paper, which was nine
hundred years old, in a monaste-
ry in Lorraine. The observa-
tions of the learned carmelite Or-
lando, on this subject, have been
taken notice of in the Act. Eru-
dit. Lips., an. 1724, p. 102, in
these words: “Then discoursing
of paper, he refers the invention
of it almost as far back as the
eighth century, when Eustathius
published his Commentary on
Homer, which is said to have been
written on paper; he adds, that a
manuscript of Homer was shown
in Geneva, in his time, said to be
eight hundred years old.”

106. A new school of practical ju-
risprudence has been established
at Petersburg; in which four pro-
fessors teach the law of nature
and ethics; the Roman law, and
the history of Russia; to which is
added a course of lectures on the
labours of the commission of le-
gislation. All the lectures are in
the Russian language.

107. It is intended to establish
in Sweden an institution for the
education of the deaf and dumb,
their number being very conside-
rable in that country. In the
dioceses alone of Upsal, Vexio,
Calmar, Ikera, and Carl-stadt,

 image pending 392

more than two hundred and eigh-
ty of these unfortunate people
have been enumerated.

108. Professor Bode took advan-
tage of the fine weather between
the 23d of April and the 5th of
May to view the new planet Ves-
ta, which he did nine times at Ber-
lin, from the royal observatory,
with the mural quadrant. On
the 5th of May, at 9h 2′ 56″
mean time, its right ascension
was 178° 29′ 56′′ and northern de-
clination 12° 35′ 49′′.

109. A new method of curing
those dreadful convulsions which
carry off so many brave wounded
soldiers has been practised in the
hospitals of Germany with great
success. It was first resorted to
by the late M. Stutz, a physician
of eminence in Suabia, and he was
led to this important discovery
from the analogy of a simple fact.
M. Humboldt had announced, in
his work upon the nerves, that on
treating the nervous fibre alter-
nately with opium and carbonate
of pot-ash, he made it pass five or
six times from the highest de-
gree of irritability to a state of
perfect asthenia. The method
of M. Stutz, who has been em-
ployed with great success in the
German hospitals, consisted in an
alternate internal application of
opium and carbonate of potash.
It has been seen that when thirty-
six grains of opium, administered
in the space of twenty-four hours,
produced no effect, the patient
was considerably relieved by ten
grains more of opium, employed
after having given the alkaline so-
lution. This new treatment of te-
tanus is worthy of attention.

110. The Austrian empire, ac-
cording to a report lately publish-
ed, contains 11,680 German
square miles, and a population of

23,500,000 souls. The revenues
amount to one hundred and four
millions of guilders, the expendi-
ture to one hundred and three
millions, and the national debt to
1,200,000,000. The present es-
tablishment of the army consists
of 344,315 men.

111. There has been establish-
ed at Prague a school for the
deaf and dumb, which is support-
ed by subscription. The children
of those parents who are in good
circumstances are received into
the house on paying annually
one hundred and twenty-five flo-
rins, for which sum they are pro-
vided with food, lodging, and in-
struction; and the directors of this
establishment by are these means
enabled to afford gratuitously the
same advantages to a certain num-
ber of deaf and dumb children,
belonging to poor parents. The
whole is under the direction of M.
Florian Klein, who is assisted by
other able instructors.

112. The grand duke of Baden
has published an edict for the re-
gulation of the press, and prevent-
ing the piratical re-printing of
books in his dominions. To eve-
ry author who publishes a work,
affixing his name to it, the copy-
right is secure during his whole
life, and during one year after his
death it is continued to the person
to whom the sale of the work is
committed.

113. There is now living at
Marseilles, in France, a girl call-
ed Rosalia-Zaccharia Ferriol,
aged ten years, and born at that
city, of French parents, who pos-
sesses all the characters of the
Albinos. The colour of her skin
is of a dull white; her hair is
straight and somewhat harsh to
the touch, and is of a shining
white colour, as are likewise her

 image pending 393

eye-lashes and eye-brows. Her
eyes are large and rolling, the
iris being of a clear blue with red
streaks, and the cornea of a bright
and vivid red. The sensibility of
the visual organs is very great,
the child not being able to bear
much light, that of the sun oblig-
ing her to close her eyes. This
girl, though much deformed in
person, enjoys good health, and
has never been afflicted with any
disease except the small-pox.
She is very fond of high-seasoned
food, is lively and intelligent.
The father has chesnut-coloured
hair, and appears to enjoy good
health; the mother is a brunette,
strong; and neither she nor her
husband have ever been afflicted
with any severe disorder; she has
had five children, who are all liv-
ing, but never during pregnancy
was indisposed more than women
usually are. All her children,
except the girl above described,
have chesnut-coloured hair, and
are perfectly well formed.

114. The following is a list of
all the cities in France, which
contain a population of thirty
thousand people and upwards:

                                                   
Paris  547,756 
Marseilles  96,413 
Bourdeaux  90,992 
Lyons  88,919 
Rouen  87,000 
Turin  79,000 
Nantz  77,162 
Brussels  66,297 
Antwerp  56,318 
Ghent  55,161 
Lisle  54,756 
Toulouse  50,171 
Liege  50,000 
Strasburgh  49,056 
Cologne  42,706 
Orleans  41,937 
Amiens  41,279 
Nismes  39,594 
Bruges  33,632 
Angers  33,000 
Montpellier  32,723 
Metz  32,099 
Caen  30,923 
Rheims  30,225 
Alexandria  30,000 
Clermont  30,000 

115. The botanical garden at
Leyden occupies about four acres
of land, and is kept in excellent
order. The botanical gardens of
Upsal and of the Dublin society
are described as greatly superior
in value and arrangement to this
of Leyden. Amongst the plants
are the remains of vegetable an-
tiquity, in the shape of a palm,
which stands in a tub in the open
air, supported by a thin frame of
iron-work; it is about fourteen
feet high, and was raised from
seed by the celebrated Carolus
Clusius, who died professor at
Leyden, in 1609. This plant is
said to be the palm mentioned by
Linnaeus in his Praelectiones in Or-
dines Naturales Plantarum,
pub-
lished by Giseke, in 1792, at
Hamburgh, which Linnaeus sus-
pected to be a Chamaerophs, but
which, as Dr. Smith observes, his
editor rightly refers to the Ra-
phis flabelliformis.
It comes from
China and Japan; and there is
a tree of this kind, and about as
large, in the botanic garden at
Paris, and another at Pisa. In
this garden is also the ginkgo of
the Chinese, a standard twenty
feet high; Strelitzia regina,
which has never yet flowered in
any garden out of England; the
Olea laurifolia, a new species,
according to Van Royen; Roye-
na lucida, in flower, as large as a
moderate hawthorn tree, and
thought to be very handsome;
and a singular plant from the
Cape, supposed to be an echites,

 image pending 394

with a large tuberous root raised
high above the surface of the
ground, two or three weak stems
a foot high, and large dark-brown
flowers. In the university libra-
ry, is Rauwolf's Herbarium,
which is very magnificent, and
the plants well preserved; also
Boccone's Herbarium of the
plants described in his Fasciculus
Plantarum, published by Morison,
at Oxford, in 1674. These spe-
cimens are very poor. Herman's
collection of Ceylon plants is also
here, and a volume of West In-
dia plants, belonging to Herman,
which are very scarce in Holland.

116. Holland still possesses se-
veral artists, who maintain the
glory of the ancient Dutch school.
M. Buch, director of the Academy
of Design at Amsterdam, is esti-
mated to be a good historical
painter. The pictures of flowers
and sea pieces, by De Vanos, are
spoken of with great praise. The
landscapes of Haag, and the ani-
mals of Shouwman, are much es-
teemed. Kuiper has exercised
his pencil with success in allego-
rical pieces, and Portman has giv-
en specimens of distinguished ta-
lents in engraving Kuiper's two
pictures of peace and war. Vinck-
les and Hodges have long enjoyed
the reputation of skilful engrav-
ers. Schevegman has obtained
a prize given by the National Eco-
nomical Society, for a new inven-
tion of engraving in imitation of
chalk, and the society of Haerlem
has bestowed another on Hor-
stock, a painter of Alkmaer, who
has found out a method of render-
ing water-colours more durable.

117. The number of students in
the university of Leyden does not
at present exceed two hundred,
and those of Utrecht three hun-
dred and sixty.



118. The library of the universi-
ty of Leyden is celebrated through
Europe for the many valuable
specimens of oriental literature
with which it abounds. Golius,
on his return from the east, and
who afterwards filled with great
reputation the Arabic professor-
ship of the university, enriched
this valuable depository of learn-
ing with many Arabic, Turkish,
Chaldean, and Persian manu-
scripts. Joseph Scaliger be-
queathed his valuable collection
of Hebrew books to it. The pre-
cious manuscripts contained here
are said to exceed eight thousand.
Since the last war commenced, no
addition of English publications has
been made to this library, which
contains the Transactions of the
Royal Society, and of the Society
of Antiquaries of London, and the
histories of Gibbon, Robertson,
and Hume. The king of Spain
presented this library with some
magnificent folios, descriptive of
the antiquities of Herculaneum.
Most of the books are bound in
fine white vellum, and decorated
with considerable taste and splen-
dour. There is a museum of
natural history, principally collect-
ed by professor Allemand, con-
taining some fine ores, corals, and
pebbles, and also some rare quad-
rupeds and amphibia; also a young
ostrich in the egg; the nautilus
with the animal in it, and some
papilios. In the anatomical thea-
tre are the valuable preparations
of Albinus, and amongst them
some specimens of the progress
of ossification in the foetus.

119. The king of Holland has
appointed a director-general of the
fine arts, to whom will be commit-
ted the care and superintendance
of the royal museum, and of those
in the departments. He is to be

 image pending 395

president of the Academy of Arts,
and editor of a journal, a number
of which is to appear every month;
and will endeavour by all means
in his power to attract celebrated
artists to the Hague. Every year
the academy will adjudge a prize
of 3000 florins for the best pic-
ture, the subject of which is to be
taken from the national history,
and one of equal value for the
best piece of sculpture; a prize of
2000 florins for the best engraving.
Eleven pupils are to be sent to
Rome and Paris, and are to re-
side two years in each of those ci-
ties.

120. There had long been in the
city of Genoa a hexagonal vase,
known by the name of Sacro Ca-
tino
(the sacred plate), which was
supposed to be an emerald, and
consequently of inestimable value,
On plundering Italy, during the
revolution, it was sent to Paris,
and deposited, in November last,
by the emperor's orders, in the
cabinet of antiquities in the im-
perial library. This vase was
considered as a precious relic;
and father Gaetano, a learned
Augustine monk, published, in
1727, at Genoa, a dissertation, in
which he inserted all the author-
ities that tended to prove that this
was the very vase in which the
paschal lamb had been served up
to Christ and his apostles, on the
even of his passion. He account-
ed for its falling into the hands of
the Genoese in the following
manner: these people distinguish-
ed themselves in the first crusade,
and particularly in the taking of
Caesarea, in 1101. An immense
booty was found in this place,
which was divided into three
parts, one of which consisted of
nothing but the Sacro Catino.
All the crusaders agreed, that the

Genoese should be recompensed
for their intrepidity in first enter-
ing the town, by having the first
choice; and they chose the Sacro
Catino.
They kept it with the
most sacred care, in a receptacle
made in the wall of the cathedral
at Genoa, the keys of which were
deposited with the most distin-
guished personages of the repub-
lic. No person was permitted to
touch it, and it was shown to the
faithful only twice a year, at a
great festival. Thus it was not
Possible to examine whether the
vase was an emerald or not; but
this examination has just taken
place by a committee of chemists
from the institute, Guyton, Vau-
quelin, and Hauy. They have
declared that the Sacro Catino is
nothing more than a piece of
coloured glass; but they think it
worthy of preservation, on account
of its having been such an object
of devotion, and because it is a
curious specimen of the art of
glass-making in the lower empire,
at such an early period. It is
supposed to have been made about
the time when Constantine estab-
lished the seat of his empire at
Byzantium.

121. An old national diversion
has lately been revived at Pisa, by
order of the queen of Etruria. It
is called Giouoco del Ponte. As
the river Arno divides the town
into north and south, one hun-
dred and eighty inhabitants of the
north quarter contend with an
equal number of the south quar-
ter, for the possession of its mar-
ble bridge. They attack by divi-
sions of thirty, and the struggle
lasts three quarters of an hour,
consisting in the parties pushing
against and driving back each
other. Those who penetrate be-
yond the middle of the bridge are

 image pending 396

proclaimed victors. The contest
concludes with a splendid repast,
and a ball. Pisa having been
founded by a Greek colony, this
festival is thought to be a remnant
of the ancient Greek games. It
had ceased to be celebrated for
the last twenty-two years.

122. The university of Coimbra
(Portugal) has been enriched by
the acquisition of the large library
of M. Hasse, who died lately at
Lisbon. The scarce books and
MSS. in that library amount to
about 12,000 volumes. Besides
some Latin and Spanish works
of the fifteenth century, the stu-
dent will there find the best works
on Spanish and Portuguese li-
terature, and almost every thing
that exists either in print or MS.
relative to the Portuguese laws
and legislation.

123. Among the means which
have, in the highest degree, con-
tributed to give effect and curren-
cy to the improvements and dis-
coveries in modern husbandry, in
Great Britain, may be mentioned
the establishment of the Board of
Agriculture, and of the societies
which flourish in every enlighten-
ed district of the empire, and the
publication and diffusion of their
reports and proceedings. The
Board of Agriculture in particular
distinguished itself at an early pe-
riod of its existence, by causing
surveys to be made of every coun-
ty, in which the state of its hus-
bandry, its produce, soil, and
general industry were to be de-
scribed: it circulated these sur-
veys in the manner of proof-sheets
for correction; and it is now em-
ployed in preparing, under able
editors, corrected editions and
improved surveys, and in laying
them before the public, with all
the dispatch which is consonant

with accuracy. These improved
and corrected county surveys, as
published by the Board of Agricul-
ture, may perhaps be compared
with the famous doomsday sur-
vey of the Norman conqueror, as
far as the enlightened views and
superior policy of our own times
can be compared with the imper-
fect conceptions of a dark age.
Doubtless this great undertaking
will become the doomsday book
of distant ages, conferring dis-
tinction on the reign of George
III; and transmitting all the past
experience of husbandmen, in
every kind of soil, and under
every variety of circumstance, for
their warning and example. We
subjoin a list of the corrected sur-
veys which have already been pub-
lished, and have annexed the
names of their respective editors:
Argyle, by Dr. Smith.

Clydesdale, by John Naismith,
Esq.

East Lothian, by R. Somerville,
Esq.

Essex, by Arthur Young, Esq.

Fife, by Dr. Thomason.

Gloucestershire, by Mr. Rudge.

Hertfordshire, by Arthur Young,
Esq.

Herefordshire, by John Duncumb,
Esq.

Kent, by John Boys, Esq.

Lancaster, by John Holf, Esq.

Lincolnshire, by Arthur Young,
Esq.

Middlesex, by John Middleton,
Esq.

Mid-Lothian, by George Robert-
son, Esq.

Norfolk, by Nathaniel Kent, Esq.

Norfolk, by Arthur Young, Esq.

Northumberland, Cumberland,
and Westmoreland, by Messrs.
Bailey, Culley, and Pringle.

Nottinghamshire, by Robert
Lowe, Esq.



 image pending 397

Perth, by Dr. Robertson.

Roxburgh and Selkirk, by Dr.
Douglas.

Salop, by Mr. Plimley.

Somersetshire, by John Billings-
ley, Esq.

Staffordshire, by W. Pitt, Esq.

Suffolk, by Arthur Young, Esq.

Yorkshire (the west riding), by
Robert Browne, Esq.

Yorkshire (the north riding), by
John Tuke, Esq.

Other surveys will follow, at the
rate of six or eight per annum.
Essex, by Mr. Young, and Glou-
cestershire by Mr. Rudge, have
lately been published.

124. Dr. Mayo, Dr. Stanger,
and Mr. Ramsden, have reported
to the committee of the foundling
hospital, London, that twenty-one
of the children who were vaccinat-
ed on the 10th of April, 1801, and
inoculated with small-pox matter
on the 9th of August, 1802, and
again on the 13th of November,
1804, were re-inoculated with
small-pox matter on the 23d of
February, 1807, without any con-
sequence, except slight inflamma-
tion of the inoculated part, in a
few instances, and in these cases
a small pustule on the part where
the matter was inserted.

125. A Palestine association
has lately been formed in Eng-
land, on the plan of the African
Society; the object of which is to
promote the ends of learning, in
forwarding and assisting discove-
ries in the interior of Syria and
Palestine. The following are the
various subjects to which the at-
tention of the travellers, selected
by the committee, to be sent into
Syria, and other regions of the
east, at the expence of the associa-
tion, is to be directed:

1. ——Astronomical observations

to ascertain the situations of the
most remarkable places.

2. ——Ranges and heights of
mountains.

3. ——Breadth and depth of rivers,
with their courses, fords, and
bridges; wells and fountains,
whether of sweet, salt, or brackish
water.

4. ——Times and extent of inun-
dations.

5. ——Every other observation
relative to the geography and topo-
graphy of Palestine, which may
be of use in the formation of a
more accurate map of the country
than has hitherto appeared.

6. ——Process of agriculture in
all parts.

7. ——To compose a meteorolo-
gical journal, according to a form
prepared for the purpose in Eng-
land, and in which shall be com-
prised an accurate statement of
the winds and temperature for the
whole year, mentioning the place,
time, and exposure.

8. ——A list of the natural pro-
ductions of Palestine, with a de-
scription of the soil and situation
of those that are more rare; par-
ticular attention to be paid to the
culture and use of the date and the
palm trees.

9. ——To observe the uses, of
any kind whatever, the other bo-
tanical productions of the country
are applied to; whether these uses
are publicly known or kept secret
in particular families, and what is
their medicinal or chemical value.

10. ——To detect the errors of
former travellers.

11. ——To make accurate draw-
ings of the implements of mason-
ry, carpenter's work, and other
handicrafts.

12. ——Substance and quantity of
food consumed in the families of

 image pending 398

the inhabitants in different situa-
tions in life.

13. ——Whence the neighbour-
hood of Jerusalem is supplied
with fuel and timber for building.

14. ——To endeavour to trace the
progress of the Israelites under
Moses and Joshua, in their opera-
tions against the possessors of the
promised land, and the subsequent
distribution of the tribes; verify-
ing characteristic epithets given
to the several countries mentioned
in the scriptures, and to continue
the same observations throughout
the whole of Palestine, with refer-
ence to the latter periods of the
Jewish history.

15. ——To write in Arabic and
English characters the name of
every town, village, river, moun-
tain, &c., by which the traveller
may pass; and to observe the
greatest accuracy in marking
down their respective bearings,
and their distances, in computed
miles, and in hours.

16. ——The strictest attention
must be paid to the draughts,
plans, and sketches of the coun-
try; and drawings will be made
of those buildings which appear to
be of importance from their un-
doubted antiquity, or architectu-
ral peculiarities.

17. ——It would be extremely de-
sirable to form an ample collection
of inscriptions, manuscripts, and
medals, and other valuable monu-
ments of antiquity, whether He-
brew, Phoenician, Greek, or Ro-
man.

18. ——Estimate of the present
population of Palestine, with de-
tails of the manners and customs
of the inhabitants.

19. ——Vestiges of ancient culti-
vation in parts of the country now
desolate and unproductive.



20. ——Weights; and measures
of time, distance, and capacity.

21. ——The present modes of di-
viding the year and day, in use
among the Arabs, Turks Chris-
tians of each denomination, and
Jews; as well as the state of trade
and manufactures within the limits
of Palestine and its vicinity.

A variety of other subjects of
inquiry of a more particular and
detailed nature cannot fail to sug-
gest themselves to the committee,
when they are preparing their
instructions for their travellers.

The following is a list of the
members of the committee ap-
pointed by the association:

A. Hamilton, D. D., F. R. S.,
V. P. A., president.

Earl of Aberdeen, treasurer.

William Hamilton, Esq., F. S.
A., secretary.

George Browne, Esq.

Rev. W. Cockburn.

J. Spencer Smith, Esq., L. L. D.,
F. R. S., F. S. A.

126. Mr. Brewster, of Edin-
burgh, has invented a new astro-
meter, for finding the rising and
setting of the stars and planets,
and their position in the heavens,
more simple in its construction,
and more extensive in its appli-
cation, than any before invented.
The use of this instrument is
thus described: to find the name
of any particular star that is ob-
served in the heavens, place the
astrometer due north and south,
and, when the star is near the
horizon, shift the moveable index
till the two sights point to the
star. The side of the index will
then point out, on the exterior
circle, the star's amplitude. With
this amplitude enter the third
scale from the centre, and find the
declination of the star in the se-

 image pending 399

cond circle. Shift the moveable
horary circle, till the time at
which the observation is made be
opposite the star's declination,
and the index will point to the
time at which it passes the meri-
dian. The difference between the
time of the star's southing and
twelve o'clock at noon, converted
into degrees of the equator, and
added to the right ascension if the
star comes to the meridian after
the sun, but subtracted from it if
the star souths before the sun,
will give the right ascension of the
star. With the right ascensions
and declinations thus found, enter
a table of the right ascensions and
declinations of the principal fixed
stars, and you will discover the
name of the star which corres-
ponds with these numbers. The
astrometer may be employed in
the solution of various other pro-
blems.

127. Dr. Thornton has laid be-
fore the public two new cases, in
which the oxygen gas has per-
formed striking cures in asthma.
The subject of one of these was
Mr. Williams, who had been af-
flicted in the most alarming man-
ner for several years, but who, by
inhaling the oxygen gas, aided
with tonic medicines, was perfect-
ly cured in a few weeks. Mr.
Williams has now been free from
asthma upwards of two years,
which he ascribes entirely to the
pneumatic medicine.

128. Dr. Olbers has written to
Dr. Young, foreign secretary to
the Royal Society, announcing his
discovery of another new planet on
the 29th and 30th of March last.
This planet, which he calls Vesta,
is apparently about the size of a
star of the fifth or sixth magnitude,
and was first seen in Virgo. On
the 29th of March, at 8h 21m,

mean time 184° 3′: N. declina-
tion 11° 47′; on the 30th at 12h
33m, mean time 189° 52′: N. de-
clination, 11° 54′. It has since
been seen by Mr. Groombridge,
at his observatory on Blackheath,
who says it appears like a star of
the sixth magnitude, of a dusky
colour, similar in appearance to
the Herschel.

129. In the duke of Buccleugh's
collection, there has lately been
found a curious manuscript of the
statutes of the orders of the garter
and bath, with various old draw-
ings; among the latter are por-
traits of Richard III and of Anne
his queen. These drawings
prove to be the originals from
which the late lord Orford's out-
lines were taken, as represented
in his “Historic Doubts.”

130. A Swedish naturalist has
discovered the smallest animal of
the order of mammalia that has
been yet seen: he calls this ani-
mal sorex caniculatus; it is a
kind of earth-mouse.

131. Much has of late years
been done in Denmark for the
education of the poor. A law res-
pecting the establishment of coun-
try schools, which was promul-
gated in October last year, seems
to crown the honourable endea-
vours of the Danish government
towards this important object.
Schools for the peasants and the
poor have long been established
throughout the country; but part-
ly they were too few; partly the
school-masters were not sufficient-
ly paid, and therefore mostly
compelled to seek a livelihood by
other employments. The present
law directs that the country shall
be divided into school districts, in
each of which there is to be a
school, and no district must be
larger than the children may, as to

 image pending 400

the distance, without inconve-
nience, attend the school. A de-
cent income, with free house, is
appointed for the masters; and
all parents are compelled to send
their children regularly to school
after the age of seven years. The
children are divided according to
their age and proficiency into dif-
ferent classes, which are to attend
the school at different times of the
day and the week, so that no child
is taken away from its parents
more than a part of the day. In-
struction is to be given in reading,
writing, arithmetic, and religion,
and, to those who have capacity
and inclination for it, in the his-
tory and geography of their coun-
try. None are to be dismissed
from school before they can read
both print and plain writing, and
give a rational account of the prin-
ciples of christianity. These re-
gulations are, for the first, limited
to the islands of Zealand, Funen,
Coland, and Galster; but, after
they have been tried, they will, no
doubt, perhaps with some alter-
ations and improvements, be ex-
tended to all the rest of Denmark.

132. The supreme court of
justice at Copenhagen has laid
before the king an account of all
criminals in the Danish domi-
nions (including Iceland and the
Indian colonies), on whom sen-
tence has been passed in the year
1806; in which it is stated that
two hundred and five criminals,
eighteen of whom were foreign-
ers, were in that year sentenced
to corporeal punishment, five for
murder, eight for other capital
crimes, seven for forgery, the rest
for inferior offences, and that the
number of criminals bears a pro-
portion to the whole population of
the kingdom and colonies, as one
to ten thousand.



133. A. Gross, a furrier of Co-
penhagen, has invented a method
of making black hats of seal-skin,
and has obtained a royal patent,
which entitles him to the sole
fabrication of that article for three
years.

134. An official paper of Co-
penhagen gives an account of the
state of the Danish colonies in
Greenland, for the year 1804;
from which it appears that there
were in that year caught forty-
seven whales, five thousand one
hundred seals, six bears, and two
hundred and ninety unicorns. Se-
ven ships were employed in the
trade, and exported goods to the
amount of sixty-nine thousand one
hundred and five rix-dollars, of
which were provisions for twenty-
five thousand three hundred and
forty-five rix-dollars. The total
population of all the colonies was,
as far as could be ascertained, up
to June, 1805, six thousand and
forty-six persons, which is an in-
crease of one hundred and eighty-
one since the year 1802. It is
much complained of that nothing
could till that time be done in the
inoculation of the cow-pock, be-
cause the matter sent from Co-
penhagen had been found ineffec-
tive.

135. Dr. Schrœter, from a va-
riety of observations made at Li-
lienthal, has reason to believe that
the planet discovered by Dr. Ol-
bers, some time back, and called
by his name, is about the size of
the moon; that the Piazzi is about
three-fourths of the size of the
Olbers; and the Harding rather
more than half: that the atmos-
phere of Piazzi is nearly fifteen
times denser than that of the
earth; that the atmosphere of Ol-
bers is about ten times denser than
that of the earth; and that the as-

 image pending 401

mosphere of Harding is nearly
equal to our own. But he adds
that there is still reason to sup-
pose its atmosphere denser than
that of any of the earlier discover-
ed planets, from the changes in
the appearances of its light.

136. M. De Lalande died at
Paris on the 7th of April, aged
seventy-five. By his will he or-
dered his body to be dissected, and
the skeleton to be placed in the
Museum of Natural History. His
relations, however, regardless of
the injunction, caused him to be
interred a few days after his
death. His funeral was attended
by the members of the National
Institute.

137. Mr. Hausman has given
an account of the manner in which
the solution of indigo is prepared
by means of an alkaline solution
of red arsenic, for the use of calico
printers. He merely makes a
caustic alkaline solution of red ar-
senic, to which he adds, while it is
in a boiling state, a sufficient
quantity of indigo bruised, in or-
der to obtain a very deep shade,
which may be rendered more or
less intense, by diluting the solu-
tion of indigo with a weak ley of
caustic potash.

138. Veau de Launay, in a let-
ter to M. de Lametherie, says he
has frequently repeated the expe-
riments made by Messrs. Pacchi-
ani and Brugnatelli, relative to the
formation of the muriatic acid, and
always with success, that is, with
the formation of the muriatic acid
at the zinc pile, in a manner more
or less perceptible.

139. Piazzi at Palermo, and
Callandrelli at Rome, have recent-
ly made observations on several
stars, from which it appears that
some of the stars give a grand
parallax of five seconds, particu-

larly Lyra, which, next to Sirius, is
the most brilliant star in our he-
misphere, from whence it would
result that it is one of the least
distant. If there be five seconds
of simple parallax, the distance
ought to be fourteen hundred
thousand millions of leagues, that
is, five times less than has pre-
viously been supposed.

140. The city of Batavia con-
tains about one hundred and fif-
teen thousand inhabitants, the an-
nual loss of which by death is
about four thousand; and the
Dutch, in proportion to their num-
bers, contribute most largely to
this list of mortality. The Dutch,
including the half-cast, lose nine
in one hundred; the Chinese,
three and three-fifths; the na-
tives and Malays, two and one-
fifth; and the slaves, seven and
four-fifths. The mortality among
European females is not nearly so
great as among the males; and
this fact proves that intemperance
is the principal cause of morta-
lity.

141. During the year 1806, se-
veral new and important experi-
ments have been made by differ-
ent chemists on crude platina.

In endeavouring to discover the
cause of the different colours of
the triple salts of platina, Des-
cotils perceived that the red colour
of some of them was owing to the
presence of an unknown metal.

Fourcroy and Vauquelin ex-
amined the black powder, which
remains after dissolving platina;
and finding that, in some of their
experiments, it exhaled a strong
metallic odour, and in others as-
sumed a more fixed form, they
viewed it as a new metallic sub-
stance, the different properties of
which they attributed to its differ-
ent degrees of oxygenation.



 image pending 402

Tennant succeeded in separat-
ing this black powder into two
metals, one of which was fixed,
and the other extremely volatile;
while Wollaston discovered that
in the solution itself, supposed to
contain only platina, there was a
mixture of two other metals, which
not only differed from those which
form the black powder, but also
from platina itself.

Thus, after having been subject-
ed to a long series of the most ac-
curate experiments during forty
years, chemists have succeeded
in detaching eleven different me-
tals from this singular mineral,
viz., platina, gold, silver, iron, cop-
per, chrome,
and titanite; the two
last were discovered by Fourcroy
and Vauquelin, in the different
coloured sands, which are always
mixed with it. The two new me-
tals separated from the solution of
platina in the nitro-muriatic acid,
by Wollaston, are:

1. ——Palladium, a white ductile
metal, heavier than silver, very
fusible when united with sulphur,
soluble in nitric acid, colouring its
solution of a beautiful red, preci-
pitable in a metallic state by the
sulphate of iron, yielding a dingy
green precipitate with the prus-
siate of pot-ash, forming with
soda a triple salt, soluble in al-
cohol.

2. ——Rhodium, a grey metal, easi-
ly reducible, fixed and infusible,
imparting a rose colour to its so-
lutions in acids, which is rendered
much deeper by the addition of
muriate of tin, precipitated by the
alkalies of a yellow colour, but not
at all by the prussiate of pot-ash,
the triple salt of which with soda
is insoluble in alcohol.

The two metals discovered by
Tennant in the black powder af-
ter solution are:

1. ——Iridium, a very hard white

metal, difficult of fusion, nearly
insoluble in the nitro-muriatic
acid, and wholly so in all the
others; oxydizable and soluble by
the fixed alkalies, the oxyde being
soluble in all the acids, and im-
parting to the different solutions
various vivid and lively colours.
It is these salts which give the
red colour to those of the platina.

2. ——Osmium, a metal hitherto
irreducible, the oxyde of which,
in the form of a black powder, is
extremely volatile, having a strong
odour; it is very fusible, dissolves
readily in water, exhales with it
in the form of vapour, to which it
imparts a strong taste and smell.
The solution becomes blue by add-
ing the smallest quantity of tinc-
ture of galls.

The chrome, several years ago
separated from crude platina, has
lately been discovered to form a
component part of meteoric stones.
It has since been found in those
which lately fell near Alet, in the
department of Gard.

These stones, the fall of which
is equally authentic as of the for-
mer, differ from them, however,
considerably in colour and consist-
ence, being blacker, and more
friable. They appear to contain
nearly the same principles, only
the metals are more oxydized,
and the proportion of carbon is
somewhat greater.

142. During 1806, a work on
the subject of refraction was pub-
lished by Biot, the original inten-
tion of which was to aid the pro-
gress of astronomy. In the course
of his labours the author was led,
however, to apply the action of
different bodies on light to the
analysis of transparent substances.

It has been long known that the
rays of light are refracted when
they pass from one medium into
another of a different density, and

 image pending 403

that the degree of refraction is in
a direct ratio to the density of the
body if incombustible, but increas-
ing in proportion to the combusti-
bility of the body through which
it passes. Hence Newton divined
the combustibility of the diamond,
and the existence of a combustible
principle in water.

If two substances be mixed to-
gether, the proportion of whose
refracting powers is known, and
regard be paid to the density of
the mixture, we shall be thereby
able to calculate the total refrac-
tion; and, reciprocally, when the
refraction of a mixture is ascer-
tained, of which the elements are
known, we may, in like manner,
calculate the proportional refract-
ing power of each. Biot having
applied this principle to mixtures
of known proportions, and having
found it just, afterwards applied it
to ascertain the unknown propor-
tions of other mixtures.

For this purpose, fill a glass
prism, under a known pressure,
with the substance we wish to ex-
amine, or, if it be a solid body,
form it into a prism itself, and ob-
serve through it a distant object.
The angle of refraction is mea-
sured by the repeating circle,
taking into account the weight,
the temperature, and the humidi-
ty of the external air; and this
method being susceptible of a de-
gree of precision equal to that of
astronomical processes, necessa-
rily surpasses in accuracy all the
chemical means employed with
the same intention. But this mode
is only applicable to transparent
substances, and the principles of
which, as far as regards their
species, are known to us.

The author of this discovery
has already applied it to the ana-
lysis of gaseous bodies, and ob-
tained by this means the most

important results, of which the
following are among the most in-
teresting:

At an equal degree of density,
oxygen possesses the least, and
hydrogen the greatest refractive
power among all the gaseous bo-
dies. The refractive powers of
the same gas is in an accurate pro-
portion to its density under a
uniform temperature. It is to the
presence of hydrogen, in particu-
lar, that substances possessing a
high degree of refracting power
appear to owe this property, since
it was found to be present in all of
them. By this experiment at-
mospheric air gave exactly that
degree of refraction which ought
to be produced, according to cal-
culation, by a mixture of 0,21 oxy-
gen, 0,787 azot, and 0,003 of car-
bonic acid. Even when these
gases were not in the state of a
simple mixture, but brought into
the most intimate combination
with each other, the same princi-
ple was found equally applicable,
provided no very considerable con-
densation had been produced. Am-
moniacal gas produced the effect
indicated by the quantities of azot
and hydrogen which enter into
its composition; but, when too
much condensed, some alteration,
though very trifling, was observa-
ble: the same circumstance oc-
curred in the experiment with
water.

An accurate examination of the
muriatic acid gas, according to
these principles, fully demonstrat-
ed that its radical could not be
azot, and consequently that this
gas cannot be considered, as has
been lately supposed, an oxyde of
hydrogen containing less oxygen
than water.

The refractive property of the
diamond being much greater than
that of charcoal, the refractions

 image pending 404

of the carbonic acid, alcohol,
aether, and other substances, of
which carbon forms a part, the
diamond cannot be a pure char-
coal, and a fourth part of hydro-
gen, at least, is necessary, in or-
der to render it conformable to
the results of the experiment.

143. The matters produced by
organized beings have not hither-
to been examined with sufficient
accuracy. For, though we have
a general knowledge of the ele-
ments of which they are com-
posed, and that these primitive
elements are not very numerous,
yet their combinations are so
various, and they are so easily
changed and converted in the
course of the experiment, that
it is necessary to study these
combinations themselves as if
they were simple substances.
These matters, considered under
this point of view, are termed
the immediate principle of orga-
nized bodies;
and during the pre-
sent year several of them have
been discovered by different
French chemists. Vauquelin and
Robiquet found in the sap of
asparagus a crystalline matter,
soluble in water, which is, how-
ever, neither an acid nor a neu-
tral salt, and which is not acted
upon by the usual re-agents. In
the same class may be ranked
the discovery of a saccharine
principle in the bile, by Thenard,
professor in the college of France.
This principle, which was be-
fore only suspected to exist, has
been clearly demonstrated by the
learned professor, who has shown
that it possesses the property of
holding the oil of the bile in solution.

144. From the result of recent
experiments by Seguin it appears,
that coffee is composed of albumen
oil, a peculiar principle, which the
author denominates the bitter

principle,
and a green matter,
which is a combination of albumen
and the bitter principle; that the
proportions of those principles vary
in different kinds of coffee; that
torrefaction, or roasting, as it is
termed, augments the proportion
of the bitter principle, by destroying
the albumen; that these two last
principles contain much azot; and
that the bitter principle is anti-
septic. The oil of coffee is inodo-
rous, coagulated, and of a white
colour, like hog's lard.

M. Seguin next extended his
researches to other vegetables, and
discovered that a great number
which he has specified contain al-
bumen, and also a certain portion of
the bitter principle, more or less
similar to that of coffee.

Albumen being more particu-
larly found in the juices of those
vegetables which ferment without
the aid of yeast, and yield a vi-
nous liquor, as the juice of raisins,
goose-berries, &c., Seguin en-
deavoured to discover whether al-
bumen might not contribute to
produce this intestine motion hi-
therto so little understood; ac-
cordingly, having separated the al-
bumen from these juices, they
came incapable of fermentation,
but on uniting albumen with them
artificially, as that of the white of
an egg, for example, or of saccha-
rine matter, fermentation took
place, when the other necessary
circumstances concurred, in which
case a matter similar to yeast was
uniformly deposited, which ap-
peared to be only albumen chang-
ed, and become nearly insoluble
without its fermentable quality
being destroyed; from which he
concludes that albumen, whether
animal or vegetable, is the real
fermentative principle. Seguin
also discovered that albumen ex-
ists in three different degrees of

 image pending 405

insolubility, and possesses a greater
or less aptitude to become fibrous;
that its action is in proportion to
its solubility; that the respective
proportion of albumen and sugar
present in the different juices de-
termines the vinous or ascetic
nature of the product of the fer-
mentation; that the liquor thus
obtained is more spiritous in pro-
portion to the greater quantity of
sugar; and, in short, that most
fermentable juices contain a bitter
principle,
analogous to that of cof-
fee, which, though it does not as-
sist in the fermentation, neverthe-
less contributes towards the taste
and preservation of the fermented
liquor.

145. Morichini, an Italian che-
mist, having found the fluoric acid
in the enamel of the fossile jaw-
bones of the elephant, was led to
analyze the enamel of the human
teeth, and is of opinion that it con-
tains the same principle. Gay-
Lussac has also found it in recent,
as well as fossile ivory, and in the
tusks of the wild boar.

Fourcroy and Vauquelin, on
repeating these experiments, ob-
tained this acid not only from the
tusks, but from the teeth which
had undergone a change by hav-
ing remained long under ground,
but they failed in procuring it
from the same parts in a recent, or
even in a fossile state, unless they
had undergone such a change.

146. Vauquelin has also been
engaged, during the present year,
in conducting a series of accurate
and interesting experiments on
hair. By dissolving it in water
by means of Papin's digester, and
afterwards examining the solution
and its residuum, he succeeded in
extracting nine different substan-
ces; an animal matter similar to
mucilage, two kinds of oil, iron
in a peculiar state, some particles

of oxyde of manganese, phosphate
and a small portion of carbonate of
lime, a considerable portion of si-
lica, and much sulphur. Black
hair yielded an oil of the same co-
lour, while red hair produced a
reddish-coloured oil, and white,
one wholly colourless. The last
contained always an excess of sul-
phur, and the white in particular
magnesian phosphate.

Besides these theoretical re-
searches, chemical principles have
been applied to many useful prac-
tical purposes: among which is a
mode of imitating Roman alum,
discovered towards the conclusion
of the former year, and which has
succeeded so completely that the
alum manufactured in this man-
ner is sold at the same price as
the genuine Roman alum. This
method merely consists in cal-
cining and re-crystallizing the
common alum, in order to deprive
it of its superabundant acid. Cu-
raudeau contends, however, that it
is also necessary to oxygenize the
small portion of iron usually con-
tained in alum, to its maximum.
But a memoir lately published by
Thenard and Board has perfectly
cleared up this subject; from this
we learn that a thousandth part
of iron will sensibly influence the
effects of alum as a mordant; and
it is to deprive it even of this
small quantity to which the efforts
of manufacturers ought chiefly
to be directed.

The oxygenation of the iron ap-
pears extremely well calculated to
answer this intention, since it
renders it insoluble in the acid.

The application of the oxyge-
nated muriatic acid gas to the de-
struction or correction of contagi-
ous miasmata
has been much ex-
tended during the present year,
and its beneficial effects confirmed
by various extensive trials. Des-

 image pending 406

gennettes has, in particular, con-
stantly employed it in the military
hospital of Val-de-Grace; and he
has transmitted to the institute a
comparative view of the cases in
which these fumigations not only
prevented the communication of
the disease, but appeared to assist
in their cure when actually pro-
duced.

Pinel has experienced similar
success by the employment of the
same means in the hospital of
Salpetriere; and the beneficial ef-
fects resulting from its use in
Madrid, as well as in other places
in Spain, have already been made
known to the public through the
medium of different Spanish jour-
nals.

147. Cuvier was led by his ex-
periments on the fossile grinders
of elephants to examine others in
a recent state; and an occasion
having presented itself in the
course of a few years of dissecting
two elephants, nearly full grown,
he was by that means enabled to
observe with greater precision the
growth of the teeth in these ani-
mals, and thence to deduce con-
clusions respecting dentition in
general. The anatomy of large
animals may justly be considered
as a kind of natural miscroscope,
which assists in discovering that
of the smaller kind. The osseous
portion of the teeth is not furnish-
ed with vessels, nor formed by
intus-susception, like true bones,
but by a successive transudation
of layers produced by the pulp of
the teeth, and which lie over each
other. The enamel is deposited
above by the membrane which en-
velops the young tooth, and is at-
tached to it by a species of crys-
tallization; a third substance, pe-
culiar to some herbivorous ani-
mals, is deposited after the ena-

mel, but by the same membrane,
which changes its nature at a cer-
tain period.

This third substance was first
discovered by M. Tenon, who has
termed it the osseous cortex, but
who conceives it to be formed by
the ossification of the capsular
membrane. This anatomist has
communicated to the institute,
during the present year, the re-
sults of some well-devised experi-
ments on the teeth of the cachalot,
and on those of the crocodile,
from which it appears that the
first have no enamel, but only an
osseous cortex. They are easily
distinguished from each other, be-
cause the enamel is much hard-
er, and dissolves entirely in acids,
without leaving any gelatinous
parenchyma.

148. The late Mr. Saurey Gil-
pin, who died at Brompton, on the
8th of March, aged 73, was de-
servedly distinguished as a painter
of animals. Other artists might
give the anatomical figure with
equal correctness, but no painter
who ever came under our obser-
vation gave the character of the
animal with so close an attention
to the markings of nature. A
picture of the Houyhnms, from
Swift's Gulliver's Travels, struck
the late Mr. Mortimer so forcibly,
that when he saw it in the exhibi-
tion room he remarked that as,
perhaps, no man except Swift
could have described horses pos-
sessing such faculties, it was cer-
tain that no painter but Gilpin
could have displayed their charac-
ters in their faces There is a
mezzotinto from this picture, as a
companion print to the Fall of
Phaëton. He painted deer in a
most exquisite style; these he
sometimes introduced in Barret's
landscapes, and with this addition,

 image pending 407

or that of horses, their united pic-
tures were very valuable. Mr.
Locke, of Norbury Park, has se-
veral of them. He sometimes
painted in conjunction with Hod-
ges, which was the case in one of
the pictures in the Shakspeare
Gallery. He many years since
etched eight plates of horses, with
borders in imitation of mounted
drawings, all blood-horses, and in
a very spirited style. He had an
order from his majesty for six
pictures, but the writer of this ar-
ticle does not know if they were
ever finished; for Mr. Gilpin did
not finish his pictures in haste;
but was indeed slow in his opera-
tions.

149. The late John Opie, Esq.,
R. A., was a native of Truro, in
Cornwall, where his father resided
in an obscure situation. Some
strange stories have been told of
Dr. Wolcot finding his father and
him quarrelling in a saw-pit, and
being from that induced to notice
the boy. Be that as it may, the
doctor was certainly his earliest
patron; for, finding he had a turn
for painting, he employed him to
paint his own portrait, and after-
wards recommended him to paint
many others at a very low price;
which, however, enabled the young
artist to save 30l., which he
brought up to London when he
came with the doctor many years
ago; and, from the strong marks
of mind which his pictures even
then displayed, was soon no-
ticed as a genius of the first order.
One of the pictures he exhibited,
of a boy washing his feet, so much
struck Mr. Wyat, of Milton-place,
Egham, that he recommended
him to twelve of his friends, whose
portraits he painted; among them
were lady Hoare and R. Burrel,
Esq. He has been for many

years considered as a leading art-
ist, and, if we reflect on the very
marked style of his portraits, was
surely highly worthy of the cha-
racter he obtained. When elect-
ed lecturer at the Royal Institu-
tion, he read a set of lectures that
were deservedly much noticed, and
in his praises of our own artists,
gave every possible encomium to
Wilson, the landscape painter.

When elected professor of
painting to the Royal Academy,
he gave a series of lectures which
will probably be published. The
subject of one of the last was co-
louring, which, though subordi-
nate to the higher essentials of the
art of painting, he illustrated in a
most impressive and eloquent
manner.

150. The finished and unfinished
paintings, drawings, and sketches
of Mr. Barry were, in April, 1807,
sold in London. Among the
drawings there were some which
displayed great knowledge of the
figure, and had great merit; in
general they sold at a moderate
price. There were several
sketches intended for portraits in
the Adelphi pictures. His own
portrait, sitting at the base of the
statue of Hercules, who is crush-
ing Envy, holding the picture of
the Cyclops, a subject painted by
Timanthes, sold for twelve gui-
neas. A study from Titian, St.
John, for thirty guineas. His
royal highness the prince of
Wales, in the character of St.
George, which Mr. Pearson, of
Highgate, copied in painted glass,
for twenty-five guineas. The
Temptation of Adam by Eve, from
Milton, 100 guineas. Venus
Anadyomene, 110 guineas. Ju-
piter beguiled by Juno, twenty-
five guineas. His grand and fa-
vourite picture of Pandora, or

 image pending 408

the Heathen Eve, the last of his
productions, which he has been
annually altering and finishing ac-
cording to his ideas of perfection
for many, many years, was sold
for 230 guineas. His thirteen
copper-plates from the series of
pictures in the Adelphi, was sold
for 200 guineas.

151. From the statement deli-
vered as usual at the quarter ses-
sions held at Pontefract, York-
shire, it appears that the quantity
of woollen cloth manufactured be-
tween the 25th of March, 1806,
and the 25th of March, 1807, is
as follows:

     
Pieces.  Yards. 
Narrows milled.  175,334,  or 6,430,101; 
Broads——  290,269,  ——9,561,178. 

Thus the whole manufactory this
year produced 15,991,279 yards,
being 281,294 yards less than last
year. This decrease is attributed
to the unsettled state of our politi-
cal relations with America, and to
the complete ascendancy acquired
by the French over the continent.

152. The first part of the Phi-
losophical Transactions for 1807
contains only six articles. The
first is the Bakerian Lecture, on
some Chemical Agencies of Elec-
tricity, by Humphrey Davy, Esq.
The second is on the Precession
of the Equinoxes, by the Rev.
Abraham Robertson. The third
and fourth are by Everard Home,
Esq., containing an Account of
two Children, born with Cataracts
in their Eyes; and some Observa-
tions on the Structure of the Dif-
ferent Cavities which constitute
the Stomach of the Whale. The
fifth article is on the Formation
of the Bark of Trees, in a letter
from T. A. Knight, Esq., to sir
Joseph Banks. The sixth pre-
sents an Investigation of the Ge-
neral Term of an Important Series

in the inverse Method of Finite
Differences, by the Rev. John
Brinkley, D. D.

153. Died at Tours, in France,
Jean Thurel, aged 108; he was a
member of the legion of honour,
was born at Orain, in Burgundy,
in 1699, entered the regiment of
Touraine the 17th of September,
1716, and served without interrup-
tion for the space of ninety-two
years. He received a musket-
ball in the neck at the siege of
Kehl, in 1733, and seven sabre
wounds, six of which were observ-
able on his head at the battle of
Minden, in 1759. He had three
brothers killed at Fontenoy, and a
son, a veteran and coporal in the
same company, killed in 1782;
there is another, who still serves
with honour. In 1787, his regi-
ment was ordered to march to the
coast, to embark; he performed
the whole march on foot; saying,
that as he never travelled in a car-
riage, he would not commence
then. On the 8th of November,
1787, he was presented to the
king and royal family; he was
then ordered a pension of 300
franks yearly, 200 of which were
to revert to his wife in case of his
death, and, on her decease, 100
franks to each of his children.
For some years he has lived as a
veteran at Tours. Bonaparte
presented him with the eagle of
the legion of honour, and a pen-
sion of 1200 franks. On the remov-
al of the ashes of general Mon-
nier, he was one of the four com-
missaries named for that ceremo-
ny, and was then appointed, as
the oldest soldier in Europe. To
the moment of his death he pre-
served his senses and judgment;
and, until his last illness, which
was but for a few days, he enjoy-
ed good health.


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